This section presents the intermediate results of the review by the EU Standing Committee on Agricultural Research (SCAR) to identify agricultural knowledge structures in Member States (as well as other countries involved in the European Research Area). The Collaborative Working Group on Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation Systems (AKIS) of this Committee was created in response to the need for increased coordination between research and higher education systems. In discussions on innovation policy, two views have emerged: the macro-economic view which stresses market failure and research policy, and the institutional economics / systems of innovation view which stresses systematic institutional failure and innovation policy. The AKIS thinking is grounded in the second view.
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