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Record number 43814
Title Effect of heating on Maillard reactions in milk.
Author(s) Boekel, M.A.J.S. van
Source Food Chemistry 62 (1998). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 403 - 414.
Department(s) Integrated Food Science and Food Physics
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 1998
Abstract Heated milk is subject to the Maillard reaction; lactose and lysine residues in milk proteins (mainly casein) are the reactants. An overview is given of the early, advanced and final stages of the Maillard reaction as it occurs in milk. The early Maillard reaction is confined to the formation of the protein-bound Amadori product lactulosyllysine. Breakdown of the Amadori product leads to formation of all kinds of advanced Maillard reaction products such as lysylpyrraline, pentosidine, hydroxymethylfurfural, (iso)maltol, furfurals and formic acid. The content of these compounds in heated milk is, however, very low (with the exception of formic acid), and does not correspond to the breakdown of Amadori product in quantitative terms. The final stage, in which melanoidins (brown pigments) are formed and protein polymerization occurs, is largely unknown from a chemical point of view, let alone quantitatively. The conclusion can only be that not all important compounds are yet identified. Some experimental data for heated milk are given to illustrate the various stages of the Maillard reaction in heated milk. A kinetic analysis of the Maillard reaction is difficult because it is such a complicated reaction with many parallel and consecutive steps; in addition, one of the reactants, lactose, is also subject to another reaction, namely isomerization followed by degradation. The kinetics can be tackled by kinetic, multiresponse modelling, and this approach is illustrated. It appears that the temperature dependence of the (early) Maillard reaction is lower than for the simultaneously occurring isomerization reactions of lactose. The use of several components formed in the Maillard reaction to evaluate the heat intensity given to milk is discussed.
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