This paper explicitly examines the joint effect of obligatory biofuel mandates in the EU, the US, Canada, Brazil, the Rest of South America, India, and South-East Asia on land, food production, total GHG balance, trade and prices of agricultural commodities. This paper also looks at how these policies will influence biofuel production in regions where biofuel targets are voluntary, e.g., China, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. By using the CGE-model LEITAP, coupled to the integrated assessment model IMAGE, cross-sectoral effects of biofuel mandates, geographically explicit land use, and environmental effects like GHG balances and carbon stocks will also be taken into account.
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