The Dutch National Ecological Network is part of European ecological networks, Natura 2000 in the EU and Emerald in other European countries. Together they constitute the Pan-European Ecological Network (PEEN). The authors explain the principles of the design of these networks, like connectivity, and hierarchy of spatial scale. Upscaling and downscaling of ecological network is important. There are differences between and within countries in the planning of these networks. Public support is important, because of the impact of ecological networks in the wider countryside. Dutch landscape ecologists are involved in many projects for the development of Natura 2000 in the new member states. Jongman and Veen show a bottom up approach in the landscape ecological support for the development of national ecological networks by research on (semi-)natural grasslands in Bulgaria and virgin forests in Romania
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