Myrosma is a genus of rosulate herbs characterized by a compact and strongly monosymmetric inflorescence with conspicuous, white to pale green, mostly membranous bracts, in the axil of which is a single flower pair. The genus is widely distributed throughout Central Brazil, northern South America, and the Caribbean region. It occurs mostly in savannah environments but can also be found in humid and shaded habitats. We present a taxonomic revision of Myrosma recognizing a single species, Myrosma cannifolia L.f. A complete description of that species is provided with notes on its ecology, distribution, and variation. Three species and one variety are reduced into synonymy and four names are lectotypified. A complete nomenclatural account for all combinations including the name Myrosma is given.
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