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Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 443531
Title Processing of marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. Caffra) fruits : a case study on health-promoting compounds in marula pulp
Author(s) Hiwilepo-van Hal, P.
Source University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Matthijs Dekker; Ruud Verkerk; P.G. Bille. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737427 - 177
Department(s) Food Quality and Design
CS OnderwijsinstituutOnderwijsinstituut
VLAG
Publication type Dissertation, internally prepared
Publication year 2013
Keyword(s) sclerocarya birrea - voedselverwerking - voedingswaarde - food processing - nutritive value
Categories Plant Products
Abstract

Marula is a multipurpose tree from Southern Africa, used by local people for its fruit, and cosmetic oil from the seed and for medicinal products from the bark and leaves. Fruits are eaten raw, or used to prepare juices, jams, conserves, dry fruit rolls, or fermented to make alcoholic beverages like beer, wine and Amarula. The fruit is a vital source of vitamin C for rural people most of whom cannot afford other more expensive sources of vitamin C. The specific processing methods and conditions of making marula juice vary among different regions. This thesis investigated the fate of antioxidants, i.e. vitamin C, and their activities due to heat processing and fermentation of the marula pulps and its juices.

The results showed that marula fruit pulp has a vitamin C content higher than that of most fruits, ranging from 62 mg/100 g fresh weight– to over 400 mg/100 g. Juice production was optimized by an experimental design combined with response surface modelling: adding pectinase (in the range of 0.1 to 0.14%) increased the yield of marula juice by 23%. The optimal extraction temperature for the content of vitamin C and polyphenols as well as for the antioxidant activity ranged between 40 and 60°C. At heating temperatures below 125ºC, ascorbic acid in marula pulp was about 15-fold more stable than in mango and guava pulp. The results further revealed that marula peel contained more volatile compounds (75) including all the identified volatiles (41) of the flesh.

Marula fruit is a rich source of vitamin C and other antioxidants. The use of unfermented juice should be encouraged since it can contribute to the energy intake of the marula juice drinkers. Marula juice is a rich source of natural antioxidants. In addition, marula processors are advised to incorporate (part of) the skin in products such as juices, jams, jellies and alcoholic beverages during processing to enhance the unique characteristic marula flavor in the products which are currently claimed not to have a strong marula like flavour.

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