Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 494783
Title Water and nitrogen use efficiencies in citrus production : A meta-analysis
Author(s) Qin, Wei; Assinck, F.B.T.; Heinen, Marius; Oenema, Oene
Source Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 222 (2016). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 103 - 111.
Department(s) Chair Soil Biology and Biological Soil Quality
Sub-department of Soil Quality
Alterra - Soil, water and land use
Alterra - Governance
Alterra - Sustainable soil management
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2016
Keyword(s) Citrus - Efficiency - Fertilizer - Irrigation - Meta-analysis - Nitrogen - Oranges - Water

Water and nitrogen (N) are two key limiting factors for citrus production. Reported effects of water and N inputs on citrus yield, water use efficiency (WUE) and N use efficiency (NUE) vary greatly, mainly due to differences in cultivars, tree age, climate, soil types, and water and N input levels. So far, no systematic analysis has been performed, and as a result, the interactive effects of water and N inputs on yield, WUE and NUE of citrus orchards are unknown. Also, gaps between attainable and actual yields, WUE and NUE have not been established yet. Here, we report on a global meta-analysis of yields, WUE and NUE of citrus production systems, using 1009 observations from 55 studies, conducted in 11 countries. Median citrus yields ranged from 30 to 60 t ha-1, which were in between average global yields (range 10-30 t ha-1) and attainable yields (range 60-90 t ha-1). Median WUE ranged from 2.5 to 5 kg m-3 and median NUE from 150 to 350 kg kg-1. Citrus yields were related to water and N inputs and tree age. Relationships between water and N inputs and yield, WUE and NUE were also analysed for sub-datasets and quantiles, to examine the relationships near the extremes. There were statistical significant interactions between water and N inputs in yield and NUE, but not in WUE. This indicates that studies aiming at the optimization of water and N inputs must consider interactions and optimize water and N inputs simultaneously. Based on our analyses, we estimated that reducing over-optimal irrigation to optimal irrigation may increase citrus yield by 20%, WUE by 30% and NUE by 15%. Similarly, reducing over-optimal N fertilization to optimal N fertilization may increase yield by 10%, WUE by 15% and NUE by 40%. We concluded that there is room for a significant increase in yield, WUE and NUE through the simultaneous optimization of water and fertilizer N inputs via precision fertigation.

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