|Title||Implementation of the effects of physicochemical properties on the foliar penetration of pesticides and its potential for estimating pesticide volatilization from plants|
|Author(s)||Lichiheb, Nebila; Personne, Erwan; Bedos, Carole; Berg, F. van den; Barriuso, Enrique|
|Source||Science of the Total Environment 550 (2016). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1022 - 1031.|
|Department(s)||Alterra - Environmental risk assessment|
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||Atmospheric pollution - Formulation - Leaf penetration - Modeling - Pesticides - Physicochemical properties|
Volatilization from plant foliage is known to have a great contribution to pesticide emission to the atmosphere. However, its estimation is still difficult because of our poor understanding of processes occurring at the leaf surface. A compartmental approach for dissipation processes of pesticides applied on the leaf surface was developed on the base of experimental study performed under controlled conditions using laboratory volatilization chamber. This approach was combined with physicochemical properties of pesticides and was implemented in SURFATM-Pesticides model in order to predict pesticide volatilization from plants in a more mechanistic way. The new version of SURFATM-Pesticide model takes into account the effect of formulation on volatilization and leaf penetration. The model was evaluated in terms of 3 pesticides applied on plants at the field scale (chlorothalonil, fenpropidin and parathion) which display a wide range of volatilization rates. The comparison of modeled volatilization fluxes with measured ones shows an overall good agreement for the three tested compounds. Furthermore the model confirms the considerable effect of the formulation on the rate of the decline in volatilization fluxes especially for systemic products. However, due to the lack of published information on the substances in the formulations, factors accounting for the effect of formulation are described empirically. A sensitivity analysis shows that in addition to vapor pressure, the octanol-water partition coefficient represents important physicochemical properties of pesticides affecting pesticide volatilization from plants. Finally the new version of SURFATM-Pesticides is a prospecting tool for key processes involved in the description of pesticide volatilization from plants.