|Title||Who Benefits from Ecosystem Services? A Case Study for Central Kalimantan, Indonesia|
|Author(s)||Suwarno, Aritta; Hein, Lars; Sumarga, Elham|
|Source||Environmental Management 57 (2016)2. - ISSN 0364-152X - p. 331 - 344.|
Environmental Systems Analysis Group
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||Beneficiaries - Benefits - Ecosystem accounting - Ecosystem management - Ecosystem services|
There is increasing experience with the valuation of ecosystem services. However, to date, less attention has been devoted to who is actually benefiting from ecosystem services. This nevertheless is a key issue, in particular, if ecosystem services analysis and valuation is used to support environmental management. This study assesses and analyzes how the monetary benefits of seven ecosystem services are generated in Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia, are distributed to different types of beneficiaries. We analyze the following ecosystem services: (1) timber production; (2) rattan collection; (3) jelutong resin collection; (4) rubber production (based on permanent agroforestry systems); (5) oil palm production on three management scales (company, plasma farmer, and independent smallholder); (6) paddy production; and (7) carbon sequestration. Our study shows that the benefits generated from these services differ markedly between the stakeholders, which we grouped into private, public, and household entities. The distribution of these benefits is strongly influenced by government policies and in particular benefit sharing mechanisms. Hence, land-use change and policies influencing land-use change can be expected to have different impacts on different stakeholders. Our study also shows that the benefits generated by oil palm conversion, a main driver for land-use change in the province, are almost exclusively accrued by companies and at this point in time are shared unequally with local stakeholders.