|Title||Bio-based, amorphous polyamides with tunable thermal properties|
|Author(s)||Velthoven, Juliën L.J. Van; Gootjes, Linda; Noordover, Bart A.J.; Meuldijk, Jan|
|Source||European Polymer Journal 66 (2015). - ISSN 0014-3057 - p. 57 - 66.|
|Department(s)||FBR Sustainable Chemistry & Technology|
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||Amorphous materials - Copolymerization - Polyamides - Renewable resources - Resins|
The aim of this work is to synthesize amorphous polyamides from renewable monomers derived from vegetable oils and sugars. By making use of the odd-even effect to hamper intermolecular hydrogen bonding, combined with either the incorporation of dimerized fatty acid monomers or isoidide diamine (IIDA) produced from fructose, the crystallization of the polyamides was suppressed considerably. Polyamides based on the dimerized fatty acid showed Tg values below 10 °C. The introduction of the isoidide-based diamine enhanced the rigidity of the polymer backbone, which enabled the synthesis of amorphous polyamides with Tg values up to 100°C. For both series incomplete reaction has been observed as both end groups, i.e. amine and carboxylic acid, were detected in 1H NMR. This results in Mn values from 1H NMR for the fatty acid-based series in the range of 4700-21,000 g mol-1. The Mn values measured by SEC for the IIDA-based were in the range of 3000-10,700 g mol-1. The broad range of Tg values found for these materials in combination with their relatively low molecular weights and the corresponding large amount of reactive end-groups make them suitable for application in coatings, composites, or soft-touch surfaces.