|Title||Toward a new understanding of the links between poverty and illegal wildlife hunting|
|Author(s)||Duffy, Rosaleen; St John, Freya A.V.; Büscher, Bram; Brockington, Dan|
|Source||Conservation Biology 30 (2016)1. - ISSN 0888-8892 - p. 14 - 22.|
Sociology of Development and Change
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||Ivory - Poaching - Rhino horn - Rural development - Wildlife trade|
Conservation organizations have increasingly raised concerns about escalating rates of illegal hunting and trade in wildlife. Previous studies have concluded that people hunt illegally because they are financially poor or lack alternative livelihood strategies. However, there has been little attempt to develop a richer understanding of the motivations behind contemporary illegal wildlife hunting. As a first step, we reviewed the academic and policy literatures on poaching and illegal wildlife use and considered the meanings of poverty and the relative importance of structure and individual agency. We placed motivations for illegal wildlife hunting within the context of the complex history of how wildlife laws were initially designed and enforced to indicate how hunting practices by specific communities were criminalized. We also considered the nature of poverty and the reasons for economic deprivation in particular communities to indicate how particular understandings of poverty as material deprivation ultimately shape approaches to illegal wildlife hunting. We found there is a need for a much better understanding of what poverty is and what motivates people to hunt illegally.