|Title||Oligosaccharides in Urine, Blood, and Feces of Piglets Fed Milk Replacer Containing Galacto-oligosaccharides|
|Author(s)||Difilippo, Elisabetta; Bettonvil, Monique; Willems, Rianne; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Jeurink, Prescilla V.; Schoterman, Margriet H.C.; Gruppen, Harry; Schols, Henk A.|
|Source||Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 63 (2015)50. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 10862 - 10872.|
Food Chemistry Group
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||absorption - capillary electrophoresis - creatinine - fermentation - GOS - intestine - liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry - pig - prebiotics|
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are absorbed into the blood (about 1% of the HMO intake) and subsequently excreted in urine, where they may protect the infant from pathogen infection. As dietary galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) have partial structural similarities with HMOs, this study investigated the presence of GOS and oligosaccharides originating from milk replacer in blood serum, urine, and cecal and fecal samples of piglets, as a model for human infants. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis with fluorescence detection, oligosaccharides originating from piglet diet including 3′-sialyllactose and specific GOS ranging from degree of polymerization 3 to 6 were detected in blood serum and in urine of piglets. In blood serum, GOS levels ranged from 16 to 23 μg/mL, representing about 0.1% of the GOS daily intake. In urine, approximately 0.85 g of GOS/g of creatinine was found. Cecum digesta and feces contained low amounts of oligosaccharides, suggesting an extensive GOS intestinal fermentation in piglets.