|Title||Effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on endothelial function and inflammation in untreated (pre)hypertensives: a fully controlled dietary intervention study|
|Author(s)||Gijsbers, L.; Dower, J.I.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Kusters, Y.H.A.M.; Bakker, S.J.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Geleijnse, J.M.|
|Source||Journal of Hypertension 33 (2015)S1. - ISSN 0263-6352 - p. e72 - e72.|
|Event||25th European Meeting on Hypertension and Cardiovascular Protection, Milan, Italy, 2015-06-12/2015-06-15|
Human Nutrition (HNE)
Chair Nutrition and Disease
RIKILT - BU Toxicology Bioassays & Novel Foods
|Publication type||Abstract in scientific journal or proceedings|
High sodium and low potassium have been associated with detrimental effects on blood pressure. However, the role of these minerals in endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation, which may predispose to cardiovascular disease, has not yet been established. We performed a randomized placebo-controlled crossover study to examine the effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on endothelial function and inflammation in untreated (pre)hypertensive adults.
DESIGN AND METHOD:
During the study, subjects were on a fully controlled diet that contained on average 2.4 g of sodium and 2.3 g of potassium per day for a 2500 kcal intake. After one-week run-in, subjects were randomized to ingest capsules with supplemental sodium (3 g/d), supplemental potassium (3 g/d), or placebo, for four weeks each, in random order. After each intervention period, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, and circulating biomarkers of endothelial function (e.g. nitric oxide, endothelin-1, cellular adhesion molecules) and inflammation (e.g. tumor necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein, interleukins) were measured.
Of 37 randomized subjects, 36 completed the study. Subjects had a mean pre-treatment blood pressure of 145/81 mmHg. Sodium supplementation increased serum endothelin-1 by 0.24 pg/ml (95% CI: 0.03, 0.45), but had no effect on other endothelial or inflammatory biomarkers, or flow-mediated dilation. Potassium supplementation reduced interleukin-8 levels by 0.28 pg/ml (95% CI: 0.03, 0.53), without affecting other circulating biomarkers. Flow-mediated dilation was 1.16% (95% CI: 0.37, 1.96) higher after potassium supplementation than after placebo, with 83% of the subjects showing an improvement (Figure).
Sodium and potassium supplementation had little impact on circulating endothelial and inflammatory biomarkers, and only for potassium an effect on flow-mediated dilation was observed. This study suggests different actions for sodium and potassium in the pathophysiological processes leading to cardiovascular disease.(Figure is included in full-text article.).