Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 498621
Title Costs and benefits to European shipping of ballast-water and hull-fouling treatment : Impacts of native and non-indigenous species
Author(s) Fernandes, Jose A.; Santos, Lionel; Vance, Thomas; Fileman, Tim; Smith, David; Bishop, John D.D.; Viard, Frédérique; Queirós, Ana M.; Merino, Gorka; Buisman, Erik; Austen, Melanie C.
Source Marine Policy 64 (2016). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 148 - 155.
DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2015.11.015
Department(s) LEI Green Economy and Landuse
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2016
Keyword(s) Ballast water - Biofouling - Economic impact - Maritime - Mitigation measures - Native - Non-indigenous species - Shipping
Abstract

Maritime transport and shipping are impacted negatively by biofouling, which can result in increased fuel consumption. Thus, costs for fouling reduction can be considered an investment to reduce fuel consumption. Anti-fouling measures also reduce the rate of introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS). Further mitigation measures to reduce the transport of NIS within ballast water and sediments impose additional costs. The estimated operational cost of NIS mitigation measures may represent between 1.6% and 4% of the annual operational cost for a ship operating on European seas, with the higher proportional costs in small ships. However, fouling by NIS may affect fuel consumption more than fouling by native species due to differences in species' life-history traits and their resistance to antifouling coatings and pollution. Therefore, it is possible that the cost of NIS mitigation measures could be smaller than the cost from higher fuel consumption arising from fouling by NIS.

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