|Title||Costs and benefits to European shipping of ballast-water and hull-fouling treatment : Impacts of native and non-indigenous species|
|Author(s)||Fernandes, Jose A.; Santos, Lionel; Vance, Thomas; Fileman, Tim; Smith, David; Bishop, John D.D.; Viard, Frédérique; Queirós, Ana M.; Merino, Gorka; Buisman, Erik; Austen, Melanie C.|
|Source||Marine Policy 64 (2016). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 148 - 155.|
|Department(s)||LEI Green Economy and Landuse|
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||Ballast water - Biofouling - Economic impact - Maritime - Mitigation measures - Native - Non-indigenous species - Shipping|
Maritime transport and shipping are impacted negatively by biofouling, which can result in increased fuel consumption. Thus, costs for fouling reduction can be considered an investment to reduce fuel consumption. Anti-fouling measures also reduce the rate of introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS). Further mitigation measures to reduce the transport of NIS within ballast water and sediments impose additional costs. The estimated operational cost of NIS mitigation measures may represent between 1.6% and 4% of the annual operational cost for a ship operating on European seas, with the higher proportional costs in small ships. However, fouling by NIS may affect fuel consumption more than fouling by native species due to differences in species' life-history traits and their resistance to antifouling coatings and pollution. Therefore, it is possible that the cost of NIS mitigation measures could be smaller than the cost from higher fuel consumption arising from fouling by NIS.