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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Record number 501826
Title Indirect calorimetry during incubation of hatching eggs
Author(s) Brand, H. van den; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.
Source In: Indirect Calorimetry : Techniques, computations and applications / W.J.J., Gerrits, E., Labussière, Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862610 - p. 231 - 246.
Department(s) Adaptation Physiology
Publication type Peer reviewed book chapter
Publication year 2015
Keyword(s) chickens - stable isotopes - oxygen - carbon dioxide - eggshell temperature
Abstract Indirect calorimetry can be used during incubation of avian eggs to monitor the quality of the incubation process, the development of the embryo and the utilization of nutrients. Indirect calorimetry has several benefits above direct calorimetry, particularly in hatching eggs. However, to obtain reliable measurements, some aspects of indirect calorimetry need to be taken into account. First, some attention is given to the use of respiration chambers for only one single egg or more eggs at the same time, with the advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, attention is paid to the importance of using embryo or eggshell temperature as a tool to adjust the temperature in the respiration chamber. Since there is a strong relationship between embryo temperature and heat production (Q), the incubator temperature should be controlled depending on the desired eggshell temperature. Additionally, it is important to consider oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the chamber, as low partial O2 pressure is related to incubation at high altitude and high CO2 levels can result from insufficient ventilation. Besides abiotic factors affecting Q, such as temperature, biotic factors, like egg weight and age of the breeder, affect Q as well. Finally, the use of stable isotopes during incubation to determine oxidation of different nutrients during the incubation process will be addressed. We conclude that indirect calorimetry during incubation of hatching eggs can give insight in the development of the embryo and the utilization of egg nutrients throughout incubation. However, to prevent misinterpretation of the results, some incubation factors (like temperature, O2 and CO2 concentration) and egg characteristics (like weight, breed and breeder age) need to be monitored and controlled.
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