Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 503276
Title A Question of Segregation : 'GM-free' Maize Bread in Portugal
Author(s) Quedas, Fátima; Ponte, João; Trindade, Carlos; Punt, Maarten; Wesseler, Justus
Source EuroChoices 15 (2016)1. - ISSN 1478-0917 - p. 59 - 63.
Department(s) Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group
Agricultural Economics and Rural Policy Group
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2016

We describe the maize supply chain in Portugal for maize bread, a traditional bread type. As this bread is not labelled as 'contains genetically modified organisms' it should not contain more than 0.9 per cent genetically modified ingredients. On the basis of interviews we identify a general lack of documentation of the presence or absence of genetically modified ingredients along the complete supply chain (farmers, traders, mills and bakeries). Part of this deficiency is probably driven by a lack of awareness of the labelling rules at the end of the supply chain. A test of maize bread showed that more than 40 per cent of breads were indeed over the labelling threshold, and should be labelled. This includes GM maize that is not cultivated in the EU and enters the supply chain via international trade. We conclude that the realisation of coexistence and segregation requires involvement of the full supply chain, rather than just segregation at the start, if bread is to be sold with a GMO content below the 0.9 per cent threshold level. Alternatively, retailers can label their bread. This might be a cheaper solution and as a study from Switzerland shows may not result in adverse consumer reaction.

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