|Title||Environmental and human health risks of antimicrobials used in Fenneropenaeus chinensis aquaculture production in China|
|Author(s)||Sun, Ming; Chang, Zhiqiang; Brink, Paul J. van den; Li, Jian; Zhao, Fazhen; Rico, Andreu|
|Source||Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23 (2016)15. - ISSN 0944-1344 - p. 15689 - 15702.|
Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management
Alterra - Environmental risk assessment
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||Antimicrobial resistance - Aquaculture - Ecological risk assessment - Environmental modelling - Human health - Shrimps|
This study aimed to quantify the environmental fate of antimicrobials applied in Fenneropenaeus chinensis aquaculture production in China and to assess their potential risks for surrounding aquatic ecosystems, for the promotion of antimicrobial resistance in target and non-target bacteria and for consumers eating shrimp products that contain antimicrobial residues. For this, we first used the results of an environmental monitoring study performed with the antimicrobial sulfamethazine to parameterize and calibrate the ERA-AQUA model, a mass balance model suited to perform risk assessments of veterinary medicines applied in aquaculture ponds. Next, a scenario representing F. chinensis production in China was built and used to perform risk assessments for 21 antimicrobials which are regulated for aquaculture in China. Results of the model calibration showed a good correspondence between the predicted and the measured sulfamethazine concentrations, with differences within an order of magnitude. Results of the ecological risk assessment showed that four antimicrobials (levofloxacin, sarafloxacin, ampicillin, sulfadiazine) are expected to have adverse effects on primary producers, while no short-term risks were predicted for invertebrates and fish exposed to farm wastewater effluents containing antimicrobial residues. Half of the evaluated antimicrobials showed potential to contribute to antimicrobial resistance in bacteria exposed to pond water and farm effluents. A withdrawal period of three weeks is recommended for antimicrobials applied via oral administration to F. chinensis in order to comply with the current national and international toxicological food safety standards. The results of this study indicate the need to improve the current regulatory framework for the registration of aquaculture antimicrobials in China and suggest compounds that should be targeted in future aquaculture risk assessments and environmental monitoring studies.