|Title||The potential double-burden of vitamin A malnutrition: under- and overconsumption of fortified table Sugar in the Guatemalan highlands|
|Author(s)||Bielderman, I.; Boonstra, A.; Solomons, N.W.|
|Source||European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70 (2016). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 947 - 953.|
Chair Nutrition and Health over the Lifecourse
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Abstract||Background/Objectives: In Guatemala, population-wide vitamin A fortification of table sugar has been operating for two decades. The objective of this study was to estimate the adequacy of vitamin A intakes in pregnant and lactating women from low-income, urban and rural communities.
Subjects/Methods: One or two previous-day dietary recalls were collected in a convenience sample of 234 pregnant and lactating women in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Estimated daily intakes and main sources of total vitamin A, provitamin A and preformed vitamin A were calculated. Total intakes, adjusted for day-to-day variation, were examined in relation to estimated average requirements (EAR).
Results: Median estimated 1-day total vitamin A intake was 1177 μg retinol activity equivalents (RAE) (interquartile range (IQR) 832–1782) in the urban site and 567 μg RAE (IQR 441–737) in the rural site. Women not meeting their status-specific vitamin A requirement were 3.5 times more common in the rural communities (31%) than in the urban confines (9%). In the urban area, 26 women (21%) had preformed vitamin A intakes above 1500 μg on the day of data collection. Preformed vitamin A accounted for a median of 83.9% and 60.9% of the daily total vitamin A intake in the urban and rural sites, respectively. Sugar was the principal source of vitamin A, contributing 512 μg RAE (IQR 343–749) in the urban site and 256 μg RAE (IQR 189–363 μg) in the rural area.
Conclusions: The vitamin A contribution from fortified sugar can be a determinant of reaching adequacy; nevertheless, a significant proportion of pregnant and lactating women do not meet the EAR, especially in the rural setting.