|Title||Contrasting neural effects of aging on proactive and reactive response inhibition|
|Author(s)||Bloemendaal, Mirjam; Zandbelt, Bram; Wegman, Joost; Rest, O. van de; Cools, Roshan; Aarts, Esther|
|Source||Neurobiology of aging 46 (2016). - ISSN 0197-4580 - p. 96 - 106.|
Human Nutrition (HNE)
Chair Nutrition and Health over the Lifecourse
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||Functional MRI - Healthy aging - Proactive response inhibition - Reactive response inhibition|
Two distinct forms of response inhibition may underlie observed deficits in response inhibition in aging. We assessed whether age-related neurocognitive impairments in response inhibition reflect deficient reactive inhibition (outright stopping) or also deficient proactive inhibition (anticipatory response slowing), which might be particularly evident with high information load. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in young (n = 25, age range 18–32) and older adults (n = 23, 61–74) with a stop-signal task. Relative to young adults, older adults exhibited impaired reactive inhibition (i.e., longer stop-signal reaction time) and increased blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal for successful versus unsuccessful inhibition in the left frontal cortex and cerebellum. Furthermore, older adults also exhibited impaired proactive slowing, but only as a function of information load. This load-dependent behavioral deficit was accompanied by a failure to increase blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal under high information load in lateral frontal cortex, presupplementary motor area and striatum. Our findings suggest that inhibitory deficits in older adults are caused both by reduced stopping abilities and by diminished preparation capacity during information overload.