|Title||Cladosporium fulvum Effectors : Weapons in the Arms Race with Tomato|
|Author(s)||Wit, Pierre J.G.M. de|
|Source||Annual Review of Phytopathology 54 (2016). - ISSN 0066-4286 - p. 1 - 23.|
|Department(s)||Laboratory of Phytopathology|
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||(hemi)biotroph - arms race - avirulence genes - Cf resistance genes - Cladosporium fulvum - Dothideomycetes - effector genes - extracellular pathogens - Solanum lycopersicum|
In this review, I recount my personal history. My drive to study host-pathogen interactions was to find alternatives for agrochemicals, which was triggered after reading the book "Silent Spring" by Rachel Carson. I reflect on my research at the Laboratory of Phytopathology at Wageningen University, where I have worked for my entire career on the interaction between Cladosporium fulvum and tomato, and related gene-for-gene pathosystems. I describe different methods used to identify and sequence avirulence (Avr) genes from the pathogen and resistance (R) genes from the host. The major genes involved in classical gene-for-gene interactions have now been identified, and breeders can produce plants with multiple R genes providing durable and environmentally safe protection against pathogens. In some cases, this might require the use of genetically modified plants when R genes cannot be introduced by classical breeding.