|Title||Environmental Impacts - Marine Ecosystems|
|Author(s)||Brander, K.; Ottersen, Geir; Bakker, Jan P.; Beaugrand, G.; Herr, H.; Garthe, S.; Gilles, A.; Kenny, Andrew; Siebert, Ursula; Skjoldal, Hein Rune; Tulp, I.Y.M.|
|Source||In: North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment / Quante, Markus, Colijn, Franciscus, Springer (Regional Climate Studies ) - ISBN 9783319397436 - p. 241 - 274.|
|Publication type||Peer reviewed book chapter|
|Abstract||This chapter presents a review of what is known about the impacts of climate change on the biota (plankton, benthos, fish, seabirds and marine mammals) of the North Sea. Examples show how the changing North Sea environment is affecting biological processes and organisation at all scales, including the physiology, reproduction, growth, survival, behaviour and transport of individuals; the distribution, dynamics and evolution of populations; and the trophic structure and coupling of ecosystems. These complex responses can be detected because there are detailed long-term biological and environmental
records for the North Sea; written records go back 500 years and archaeological
records many thousands of years. The information presented here shows that the
composition and productivity of the North Sea marine ecosystem is clearly affected by climate change and that this will have consequences for sustainable levels of harvesting and other ecosystem services in the future. Multi-variate ocean climate indicators that can be used to monitor and warn of changes in composition and productivity are now being developed for the North Sea.