|Title||Evaluation of a serious self-regulation game intervention for overweight-related behaviors ("Balance It") : A pilot study|
|Author(s)||Spook, Jorinde; Paulussen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; Empelen, Pepijn van|
|Source||Journal of Medical Internet Research 18 (2016)9. - ISSN 1438-8871|
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||Balance It - Dietary intake - Effect evaluation - Health promotion - Physical activity - Prevention and control - Self-regulation - Serious game|
Background: Serious games have the potential to promote health behavior. Because overweight is still a major issue among secondary vocational education students in the Netherlands, this study piloted the effects of "Balance It," a serious self-regulation game intervention targeting students' overweight-related behaviors: dietary intake and physical activity (PA). Objective: We aimed to pilot the effects of Balance It on secondary vocational education students' dietary intake and PA. Methods: In total, 501 secondary vocational education students participated at baseline (intervention: n=250; control: n=251) in this pre-post cluster randomized trial. After 4 weeks, at immediate posttest, 231 students filled in the posttest questionnaire (intervention: n=105; control: n=126). The sample had a mean age of 17.28 (SD 1.26, range 15-21) years, 62.8% (145/231) were female, and 26.8% (62/231) had a non-Dutch background. Body mass index (BMI kg/m2) ranged from 14.4 to 31.1 (mean 21.1, SD 3.3). The intervention and control groups were compared on the primary (behavioral) outcomes of dietary intake (fruit and vegetable consumption, snack consumption, and soft drink consumption) and PA (moderate and vigorous). Additionally, we explored (1) differences between the intervention and control groups in determinants of dietary intake and PA, including attitude, self-efficacy, intention, barrier identification, action planning, and action control, and (2) differences between active (intervention) users and the control group in dietary intake, PA, and associated determinants. Results: After corrections for multiple testing, we did not find significant differences between the intervention group and control group in terms of dietary intake, PA, and determinants of dietary intake and PA. Exploratory research indicated that only 27.6% (29/105) of the intervention group reported actual intervention use (ie, active users). For exploratory reasons, we compared the active users (n=29) with the control group (n=124) and corrected for multiple testing. Results showed that active users' snack consumption decreased more strongly (active users: mean change=-0.20; control group: mean change=-0.08; beta=-0.36, P=.01, R2 change=.05), and their use of active transport had a stronger increase (active users: mean change=0.92; control group=-0.12; beta=1.58, P=.02, R2 change=.03) than the control group. Results also revealed significant differences in action planning (active users: mean change=0.42; control group: mean change=0.07; beta=0.91, P=.01, R2 change=.04) and action control (active users: mean change=0.63; control group: mean change=-0.05; beta=1.25, P=.001, R2 change=.08) in terms of unhealthy eating. Conclusions: The Balance It intervention did not show favorable effects on dietary intake and PA compared to the control condition. However, only a small number of people in the intervention condition actually used Balance It (27.6%). Exploratory analyses did suggest that, if used as planned, Balance It could contribute to changing dietary intake and PA behaviors, albeit it remains debatable whether this would be sufficient to prevent overweight.