|Title||Diversity in secondary metabolites including mycotoxins from strains of aspergillus section nigri isolated from raw cashew nuts from benin, west africa|
|Author(s)||Lamboni, Yendouban; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Linnemann, Anita R.; Gezgin, Yué Ksel; Hell, Kerstin; Nout, Rob; Smid, Eddy J.; Tamo, Manuele; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Hoof, Jakob Blñsbjerg; Frisvad, Jens Christian|
|Source||PLoS One 11 (2016)10. - ISSN 1932-6203|
Food Quality and Design
Food Microbiology Laboratory
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
In a previous study, raw cashew kernels were assayed for the fungal contamination focusin on strains belonging to the genus Aspergillus and on aflatoxins producers. These sample showed high contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri species and absence o aflatoxins. To investigate the diversity of secondary metabolites, including mycotoxins, th species of A. section Nigri may produce and thus threaten to contaminate the raw cashe kernels, 150 strains were isolated from cashew samples and assayed for their productio of secondary metabolites using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometr (LC-HRMS). Seven species of black Aspergilli were isolated based on morphological an chemical identification: A.Tubingensis (44%), A. niger (32%), A. brasiliensis (10%), A. carbonariu (8.7%), A. luchuensis (2.7%), A. aculeatus (2%) and A. aculeatinus (0.7%). Fro these, 45 metabolites and their isomers were identified. Aurasperone and pyranonigrin A produced by all species excluding A. aculeatus and A. aculeatinus, were most prevalen and were encountered in 146 (97.3%) and 145 (95.7%) isolates, respectively. Three mycotoxin groups were detected: fumonisins (B2 and B4) (2.7%) ochratoxin A (13.3%), an secalonic acids (2%), indicating that these mycotoxins could occur in raw cashew nuts Thirty strains of black Aspergilli were randomly sampled for verification of species identit based on sequences of β-Tubulin and calmodulin genes. Among them, 27 isolates wer positive to the primers used and 11 were identified as A. niger, 7 as A.Tubingensis, 6 as A carbonarius, 2 as A. luchuensis and 1 as A. welwitschiae confirming the species names a based on morphology and chemical features. These strains clustered in 5 clades in A. sectio Nigri. Chemical profile clustering also showed also 5 groups confirming the speciespecific metabolites production.