Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 511133
Title Towards guidelines for designing parks of the future
Author(s) Klemm, Wiebke; Hove, Bert van; Lenzholzer, Sanda; Kramer, Henk
Source Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 21 (2017). - ISSN 1618-8667 - p. 134 - 145.
DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2016.11.004
Department(s) Landscape Architecture
Meteorology and Air Quality
WIMEK
Alterra - Earth informatics
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2017
Keyword(s) Climate change adaptation - Climate-responsive design - Evidence-based landscape architecture - Heat wave - Public park - Thermal comfort
Abstract This study investigated human behaviour in parks in order to develop spatially explicit design guidelines considering future climate conditions in moderate climates. Fieldwork was carried out in two parks (in Utrecht and Wageningen, the Netherlands) during summer and tropical days (Ta max > 25 °C and > 30 °C, respectively), the latter representing future climate conditions. Behavioural responses (park attendance, spatio-temporal user patterns) and thermal perception of resting park visitors were studied through unobtrusive observations (N = 11337) and surveys (N = 317). Outcomes were related to air temperature (Ta) of meteorological reference stations and spatial data on the vegetation structures of the parks. Observational data show that daily park attendance decreased with rising Ta max. Survey results indicate that resting park visitors perceived a high level of thermal comfort during all investigated days. Park visitors chose resting locations predominantly based on solar exposure conditions (sun, half shade, shade). Those solar exposure preferences were significantly related to Ta: with increased Ta the number of park visitors in the shade increased and decreased in the sun (p < 0.001) with a tipping point of 26 °C. These results indicate that parks in moderate climates may guarantee a high level of thermal comfort, even on tropical days, if a variety of solar exposure conditions is guaranteed. A ratio of 40% sun, 20% half shade and 40% shade in parks was derived from spatio-temporal user patterns, which appear to accommodate preferences of resting park visitors under summer and tropical thermal conditions and on various daytimes. These results and a spatial typology of tree configurations for microclimatic variety provide direction for designing future parks: they need to offer a wide range of sun-exposed, half shaded and shaded places to accommodate for different user needs and future climate conditions.
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