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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Record number 512033
Title Fate of Lignin and Substituted Xylan during Commercial Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus
Author(s) Kabel, M.A.; Jurak, E.; Patyshakuliyeva, A.; Vries, Ronald P. De; Gruppen, H.
Source In: Mushroom Science XIX / Baars, J.J.P., Sonnenberg, A.S.M., International Society for Mushroom Science (ISMS) - ISBN 9789090297712 - p. 350 - 354.
Department(s) Food Chemistry Group
Publication type Contribution in proceedings
Publication year 2016
Abstract Wheat straw based compost is the substrate for commercial growth of Agaricus bisporus
mushrooms, but it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how
much is metabolized during commercial cultivation. In this paper we report yields and remaining
structures of the major compost carbohydrates and lignin. Hereto, a mass balance was conducted in
a tunnel-experiment at industrial scale, and total dry matter, cellulose, hemicellulosic xylan and
lignin were quantified (Jurak et al., 2015a). Remaining (substituted) xylan structures were extracted
and analysed in detail by enzymatic fingerprinting with use of HPAEC and MALDI-TOF MS.
Remaining lignin structures were subjected to analytical pyrolysis GC/MS and typical lignin units
were determined. In addition, to determine why certain fractions remain unused in the compost,
activities of water extracted carbohydrate degrading enzymes were analysed for their ability to
degrade a range of polysaccharides (Jurak et al., 2015b,c). During growth of A. bisporus,
carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was partially degraded. At the same time,
lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was modified, as
observed by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during
growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained (Jurak et
al., 2015a). During mushroom formation, mainly endo-xylanase, endo-glucanase, β-xylosidase and
β-glucosidase activities were determined in the compost extracts. Arabinofuranosidase activity able
to remove arabinosyl residues from doubly substituted xylosyl residues nor α-glucuronidase activity
were detected (Jurak et al., 2015b). The latter correlated with the observed accumulation of xylan
fragments substituted with arabinosyl and glucuronic acid substituents in the compost towards the
end of the cultivation (Jurak et al., 2015c). Hence, it was concluded that compost grown A. bisporus
lacks the ability to degrade and consume highly substituted xylan fragments.
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