Soil fertility decline and erratic rainfall are major constraints to crop productivity on smallholder farms in southern Africa. Crop production intensification along with efficient use of chemical fertiliser is required to produce more food per unit area of land, while rebuilding soil fertility. The objective of this thesis was to identify appropriate crop production intensification options that are suitable to the socio-economic and biophysical conditions of selected smallholder maize-based farming systems in southern Africa. Three sites that formed a gradient of intensity of crop and livestock production were selected for the study. Murehwa in Zimbabwe is characterised by the largest intensity followed by Ruaca and lastly Vunduzi both in central Mozambique. In all three sites, maize is a key staple and cash crop. A literature review, field methods based on participatory research, and modelling tools were combined in analysing potential crop production options across an agricultural intensification gradient. A meta-analysis on maize grain yield under rain-fed conditions revealed that conservation agriculture required legume rotations and high nitrogen input use especially in the early years. Reduced tillage without mulch cover leads to lower yields than with conventional agriculture in low rainfall environments. Mulch cover in high rainfall areas leads to smaller yields than conventional tillage due to waterlogging, and improved yields under CA are likely on well drained soils. Crop productivity under conservation agriculture depends on the ability of farmers to achieve correct fertiliser application, timely weeding, and the availability of crop residues for mulching and systematic crop rotations which are currently lacking in southern Africa. An additive design of within-row intercropping was compared to a substitutive design with distinct alternating rows of maize and legume (local practice) under no-till in the Ruaca and Vunduzi communities of central Mozambique. Intercropping increased productivity compared to the corresponding sole crops with land equivalent ratios (LER) of between 1.0 and 2.4. Maize yield loss was only 6-8% in within-row intercropping...
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