|Title||Indische bergcultuurondernemingen voornamelijk in Zuid-Sumatra : gegevens en beschouwingen|
|Source||University. Promotor(en): J.C. Kielstra. - Wageningen : Veenman - 243|
|Publication type||Dissertation, internally prepared|
|Keyword(s)||landbouw - grote landbouwbedrijven - beplantingen - gebergten - tropen - subtropen - indonesië - sumatra - nederlands indië - agriculture - large farms - plantations - mountains - tropics - subtropics - indonesia - netherlands east indies|
|Categories||Tropical Agriculture / Rural History of South-East Asia|
|Abstract||Highland crops was here used of tropical perennial crops (cinchona, coffee, rubber, tea), cultivated mainly in mountain districts. These crops were grown on estates, owned by western companies and managed by European staff. The organization of the highland plantation industry in Java and Sumatra, particularly South Sumatra, concerned with economic and technical interests of the estates was described in detail.
Attention was paid to natural, economic, social and legal conditions under which European planters had to work.
Particularly discussed problems were labour supply, important because the estates could not recruit sufficient labour from the local thin population, which disliked plantationwork. For that reason labour had to be imported from dense populated centres in Java. Importation was allowed only if estates issued labour contracts to future plantation coolies according to Government regulations (Coolie Ordinance).
Besides financial and social conditions labour contracts could include penal sanctions to prevent desertion of estates by coolies. Contracts without such penal sanctions were also possible (Free Coolie Ordinance). Merits and consequences of both kinds of contracts were critically discussed.
Agricultural development and results were discussed with the help of numerous figures. A map shows the position of estates, road and rail communications and distances to seaports.