A study of 13 communities representative of sandy areas throughout the whole Netherlands indicated that the main cause of inefficiency was disproportion between available labour and arable land. Intensification would remove the advantage held by large farms over small farms but would make heavy demands on the farmer's ability. On the smallest holdings intensification could never absorb all the labour. It was necessary to encourage young people to leave the land to reduce the supply of labour. This would be easier if they were well educated. On the smallest units there was not sufficient work for one man and amalgamation was the only answer. On large farms sons were, often used as cheap labour with no prospect of obtaining their own holding; thus there also it was necessary for people to leave the land.
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