Results were reported of several methods of culturing tulips, hyacinths, daffodils and gladiolus in different climates of Israel. Because of extremely hot summers, insufficiently cool winters and distance to export markets, commercial outlets, especially for flower production, were limited. Even with winter plantings in shade, buds of tulips were blasted, flowers were inferior on short stems and decreased bulbs were small. Hyacinths flowered well in the first year, but formed small bulbs. Daffodils yielded flowers and bulbs reasonably to well but only for the local market. Daffodils were much better adapted to prevailing winter temperatures and similar results were expected with paperwhites, irises, lilies, anemones and hippeastrum, especially in bulb production. Gladiolus gave the best and most promising results for commercial export of flowers in winter and of corms round the year, through the excellent light and temperature. Problems discussed and partly solved were diseases, timing in relation to dormancy and photoperiod, and water supply. Special winter and summer varieties could be distinguished, without any relation to the original grouping as early, middle and late flowering cultivars. Planting depth was decisive for pattern of growth and development; 15 cm was usually optimum.
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