For a scheme of land improvement, an agro-economic survey was carried out in the Hilla-Diwaniya area in Iraq during 1958-9. After presenting general economic setting, the methods of obtaining the farm data were discussed. A classification was given of the areas studied. The economic data were compiled and analysed under the following main headings: population, land use and cropping pattern (including cultivation practices), livestock production, tenancy conditions, the farming unit, farmer's income, dietary habits and food intake.Some general relations in subsistence farming were tested for the agriculture of the Hilla-Diwaniya area. By regression analysis the relation was analysed between farm size and labour force, between yield of barley and farm size, net income and farm size and between gross and net income and labour force.
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