The influence was investigated of temperature on growth and development of groundnut, cv. Schwarz 21, Mallorca and Ukraine. Except where stated, all conclusions refer to Schwarz 21. Seed germination was not seriously influenced between 24° and 33°C, although the higher temperatures favoured germination and seedling development (Mallorca needed lower temperatures). Constant 33° gave longest stems, most leaves, greatest area of foliage and so higher dry weights of aerial plant parts, but decreased pod production. At 24° vegetative growth was less, despite larger leaves and more pods. The optimum seemed to be 28°. The change from 24° to 33° and from 33° to 24° at various developmental stages showed vegetative growth and flowering complementing each other. Together, however, they competed with fruit set. At 33° the calyx tube was longer and so was the distance travelled by the pollen to effect fertilization. Warmth 36-96 h before flowers opened decreased pollen number and viability. Flowers did not last so long. Vegetative growth was more promoted than generative growth. These observations together probably largely explain the poor setting of fruit at high temperatures. Pollen viability seemed influenced by day and hour of sampling but not by boron sprays.
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