The aim of this work is to compare initiatives by Dutch citizens and ‘social enterprises’ for nature to those of the state and to identify how the state can support such initiatives. We base our analytical framework on the Policy Arrangement Approach (PAA) and formulate recommendations for policy support and innovation by authorities. The study shows that compared to the state, the citizens and social enterprises almost naturally integrate between sectors. They contribute and share own resources, adopt not-for-profit principles and share benefits. They attribute a broader variety of values to nature and enrich the meaning and use of green open space, responding to their own wishes and those of (part of) the local community. We recommend a formal policy discourse that includes non-state local initiatives, to diminish internal barriers within the authority offices and not to support initiatives that can only be sustained at high costs or don’t have the support of the neighbourhood. The PAA shows useful for explaining the differences in outcomes between non-state developed green open space and that by the state, and to formulate recommendations.
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