Plants exhibit an intriguing morphological and physiological plasticity that enables them to thrive in a wide range of environments. To understand the cell biological basis of this unparalleled competence, a number ofmethodologies have been adapted or developed over the last decades that allow minimal or non-invasive live-cell imaging in the context of tissues. Combined with the ease to generate transgenic reporter lines in specific genetic backgrounds or accessions, we are witnessing a blooming in plant cell biology. However, the imaging of plant cells entails a number of specific challenges, such as high levels of autofluorescence, light scattering that is caused by cell walls and their sensitivity to environmental conditions. Quantitative live-cell imaging in plants therefore requires adapting or developing imaging techniques, as well as mounting and incubation systems, such as micro-fluidics. Here, we discuss some of these obstacles, and review a number of selected state-of-the-art techniques, such as two-photon imaging, light sheet microscopy and variable angle epifluorescence microscopy that allow high performance and minimal invasive live-cell imaging in plants.
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