Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 534136
Title Efficacy of chlorine dioxide on Escherichia coli inactivation during pilot-scale fresh-cut lettuce processing
Author(s) Banach, J.L.; Overbeek, L.S. van; Nierop Groot, M.N.; Zouwen, P.S. van der; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der
Source International Journal of Food Microbiology 269 (2018). - ISSN 0168-1605 - p. 128 - 136.
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2018.01.013
Department(s) RIKILT - BU Toxicology Bioassays & Novel Foods
PPO/PRI Biointeractions and Plant Health
PE&RC
VLAG
FBR Food Technology
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2018
Keyword(s) Disinfection by-products - Fresh-cut produce wash - Microbial cross-contamination - Pilot - Water disinfection
Abstract Controlling water quality is critical in preventing cross-contamination during fresh produce washing. Process wash water (PWW) quality can be controlled by implementing chemical disinfection strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pilot-scale efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) during processing on the reduction of Escherichia coli in the PWW and on processed fresh-cut ‘Lollo Rossa’ lettuce. The objective was to have a residual target concentration of either 5 or 3 mg/L ClO2 in the washing tank (3.5 m3) before and during 800 kg of lettuce processing (90 min). After 90 min., a nonpathogenic, non-Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) E. coli inoculum from an overnight culture broth (37 °C) was added to the tank resulting in an approximate final level of 106 CFU/mL. PWW and lettuce samples for microbiological and chemical analyses were taken before and after the input and supply halted. ClO2 concentrations quickly decreased after ClO2 input halted, yet a residual concentration of ≥2.5 mg/L and ≥2.1 mg/L ClO2, respectively for 5 and 3 mg/L pilots, was present 12 min after the supply halted. No detectable levels of E. coli (limit of detection 5 log) were determined in the water within 1 min after E. coli was added to the ClO2 containing wash water. Results demonstrated that ClO2 use at the semi-commercial pilot scale was able to reduce the E. coli peak contamination in the PWW. After storage (5 days, 4 °C), background microbial communities (i.e., fluorescent Pseudomonads and total heterotrophic bacteria) grew out on lettuce. Overall, ClO2 decreased the potential for cross-contamination between batches compared to when no sanitizer was used. Chlorate levels of the lettuce sampled before entering the wash water ranged from 7.3–11.6 μg/kg. The chlorate levels of the lettuce sampled after being washed in the ClO2 containing wash water, as well as after rinsing and centrifugation, ranged from 22.8–60.4 μg/kg; chlorite levels ranged from 1.3–1.6 mg/kg, while perchlorate levels were below the limit of quantification (LOQ, <5 ng/g). In this study, we report the semi-commercial pilot-scale evaluation of ClO2, for its ability to maintain the PWW quality and to prevent cross-contamination in the washing tank during fresh-cut lettuce processing. Furthermore, we provide quantitative values of ClO2 disinfection by-products chlorate and chlorite as well as of perchlorate from PWW and/or lettuce samples.
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