The registration of Plant Protection Products (PPPs) in the EU is under Regulation 1107/2009, which recommends a tiered approach to assessing the risk to non-target terrestrial plants (NTTPs). However, little information is provided on how to perform and implement higher tier studies or how to use them to refine the risk assessments. Therefore a stakeholder workshop was organized to consolidate current knowledge and expertise to aid the further development of testing and assessment procedures for NTTPs. The agreed recommendations of the workshop relate to the three main themes, i.e. specific protection goals, risk assessment and mitigation. The participants of the workshop adopted the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) approach of using an ecosystem services framework for identifying specific protection goals. First, delivery and protection of ecosystem services were discussed for in-crop, in-field ànd off-crop, and off-field areas. Second, lower and higher tier risk assessment methods, including modelling approaches, were evaluated. Third, options for risk mitigation of spray drift and run-off were discussed and evaluated. NTTPs provide a wide range of provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting ecosystem services and may occur in-crop, off-crop/in-field and off-field. The workshop participants agreed that the type and relative importance of ecosystem services provided by NTTPs differ between different areas both in field and off field. A number of higher-tier options were identified and the benefits from these options addressed. A number of concerns were raised around these options and actions taken in order to reduce uncertainty. For the initial tiers, concern was especially raised around uncertainty related to test species (are standard test species protective for wild species?) and endpoints (are current regulatory endpoints protective of reproductive endpoints ?). At the level of field- or other multispecies-studies, participants concluded that these studies pose a challenge due to limited experience with this type of study and the absence of guidelines (what to measure and how ?). Related to exposure, the main question was what is the relative importance of different exposure pathways to non-target terrestrial plants ? These questions were translated into specific actions including collating and reviewing data and literature. The workshop report is foreseen for the first months of 2015 and will include the outcome of the specific actions.
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