Invasive fusariosis has a high mortality and is predominantly observed in patients with leukemia. We report the first case of a novel species of Fusarium, Fusarium riograndense sp. nov, isolated from a lesion in the nasal cavity lesion of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The etiological agent was identified by Multilocus Sequencing Typing (MLST), including RPB2, TEF-1α, and ITS-LSU sequences, the gold standard technique to identify new species of Fusarium. MLST and phenotypic data strongly supported its inclusion in the F. solani species complex (FSSC). The new species produced a red pigment in the Sabouraud Dextrose Agar similar to other members of the complex. The macroconiodia developed from phialides on multibranched conidiophores which merge to form effuse sporodochia with a basal foot-cell instead of papilla in basal cell shape. The microconidia were ellipsoidal, 0-1-septated, produced from long monophialides. Chlamydospores were produced singly or in pairs. Amphotericin B (MIC 1. μg/mL) was the most active drug, followed by voriconazole (MIC 8. μg/mL). The patient was successfully treated with voriconazole. Our findings indicate another lineage within FSSC capable causing of invasive human infection.
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