Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 536918
Title Is Low-field NMR a Complementary Tool to GC-MS in Quality Control of Essential Oils? A Case Study : Patchouli Essential Oil *
Author(s) Krause, Andre; Wu, Yu; Tian, Runtao; Beek, Teris A. van
Source Planta Medica 84 (2018)12/13. - ISSN 0032-0943 - p. 953 - 963.
DOI https://doi.org/10.1055/a-0605-3967
Department(s) VLAG
Laboratory for Organic Chemistry
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2018
Keyword(s) 60 MHz H-NMR - adulteration - chemometrics - essential oil - fingerprinting - patchouli - quality control
Abstract High-field NMR is an expensive and important quality control technique. In recent years, cheaper and simpler low-field NMR has become available as a new quality control technique. In this study, 60 MHz 1 H-NMR was compared with GC-MS and refractometry for the detection of adulteration of essential oils, taking patchouli essential oil as a test case. Patchouli essential oil is frequently adulterated, even today. In total, 75 genuine patchouli essential oils, 10 commercial patchouli essential oils, 10 other essential oils, 17 adulterants, and 1 patchouli essential oil, spiked at 20% with those adulterants, were measured. Visual inspection of the NMR spectra allowed for easy detection of 14 adulterants, while gurjun and copaiba balsams proved difficult and one adulterant could not be detected. NMR spectra of 10 random essential oils differed not only strongly from patchouli essential oil but also from one another, suggesting that fingerprinting by low-field NMR is not limited to patchouli essential oil. Automated chemometric evaluation of NMR spectra was possible by similarity analysis (Mahalanobis distance) based on the integration from 0.1 – 8.1 ppm in 0.01 ppm increments. Good quality patchouli essential oils were recognised as well as 15 of 17 deliberate adulterations. Visual qualitative inspection by GC-MS allowed for the detection of all volatile adulterants. Nonvolatile adulterants, and all but one volatile adulterant, could be detected by semiquantitation. Different chemometric approaches showed satisfactory results. Similarity analyses were difficult with nonvolatile adulterants. Refractive index measurements could detect only 8 of 17 adulterants. Due to advantages such as simplicity, rapidity, reproducibility, and ability to detect nonvolatile adulterants, 60 MHz 1 H-NMR is complimentary to GC-MS for quality control of essential oils.
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