|Title||Probabilistic dietary risk assessment of triazole and dithiocarbamate fungicides for the Brazilian population|
|Author(s)||Jardim, Andreia Nunes Oliveira; Mello, Denise Carvalho; Brito, Alessandra Page; Voet, Hilko van der; Boon, Polly E.; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra|
|Source||Food and Chemical Toxicology 118 (2018). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 317 - 327.|
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||Brazil - Cumulative acute and chronic dietary risk assessment - dithiocarbamates - MCRA - triazoles|
Residue data for triazoles (TR) and dithiocarbamates (DT) in 30,786 samples of 30 foods were obtained from mainly two national monitoring programs, and consumption data from a national survey conducted among persons aged 10 years or older. About 16% of the samples contained TR, mainly grape (53.5%), and 16.2% contained DT, mainly apple (59.3%). Flusilazole was the index compound used for the acute effects of TR for women of child-bearing-age (cranium-facial malformation and skeletal variation), cyproconazole for the chronic effects of TR (hepatoxicity), and ethylene-bis-dithitiocarbamates (EBDC) for DT (thyroid toxicity). Exposures were estimated using the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment software. Different models were tested, and a Model-Then-Add approach was found to best estimate the chronic exposures to DT and TR. At the 99.9th percentile (P99.9), the cumulative acute TR intakes accounted for up to 0.5% of the flusilazole ARfD, mainly from beans and rice consumption. The chronic TR and DT intakes accounted for 1 and 6.7% of the respective index compound ADIs, with beans and rice accounting for most of the TR intake (∼70%), and apple for about 51–56% of the DT intake. The estimated risks from the exposure to TR and DT indicate no health concern for the Brazilian population.