|Title||Removal, biotransformation and toxicity variations of climbazole by freshwater algae Scenedesmus obliquus|
|Author(s)||Pan, Chang Gui; Peng, Feng Jiao; Ying, Guang Guo|
|Source||Environmental Pollution 240 (2018). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 534 - 540.|
|Department(s)||Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management|
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||CBZ-OH - Climbazole - Green algae - Growth inhibition - Kinetics|
Climbazole (CBZ) is an antibacterial and antifungal agent widely used in personal care products. In this study, we investigated the interactions between climbazole (CBZ) and freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus). Dose-effect relationships between CBZ concentrations and growth inhibitions or chlorophyll a content were observed. After 12 days of incubation, the algae density and chlorophyll a content in 2 mg/L treatment group was 56.6% and 15.8% of those in the control group, respectively. Biotransformation was the predominant way to remove CBZ in the culture solution, whereas the contribution of bioaccumulation and bioadsorption were negligible. More than 88% of CBZ was removed by S. obliquus across all treatments after 12 days of incubation, and the biotransformation of CBZ followed the first order kinetic model with half-lives of approximately 4.5 days at different treatments. CBZ-alcohol (CBZ-OH) was the only biotransformation product identified in algal solution. Moreover, the toxicity of biotransformation products was much lower than its corresponding precursor compound (CBZ). The results of this study revealed that S. obliquus might have a great impact on the environmental fates of CBZ and could be further applied to remove organic pollutants in aquatic environment. S. obliquus can effectively remove CBZ through biotransformation process in algal solution with CBZ-OH as the identified products.