|Title||Electrodialysis-based desalination and reuse of sea and brackish polymer-flooding produced water|
|Author(s)||Sosa-Fernandez, P.A.; Post, J.W.; Bruning, H.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.|
|Source||Desalination 447 (2018). - ISSN 0011-9164 - p. 120 - 132.|
Sub-department of Environmental Technology
Physical Chemistry and Soft Matter
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Keyword(s)||Electrodialysis - Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide - Polymer-flooding - Produced water reuse - Viscosity|
The reuse of polymer flooding produced water (PFPW) generated in oil and gas industry is limited by its salt content, making desalination by electrodialysis a promising treatment option. Therefore, this study aimed to 1) assess the technical feasibility of employing electrodialysis to desalinate PFPW generated in assorted scenarios, and 2) evaluate the reuse of the electrodialysis-desalted water to confect polymer-flooding solution. The experimental work involved desalting two kinds of synthetic PFPW solutions, one with relatively low salinity (TDS = 5000 mg/L, brackish PFPW), and another with high salinity (TDS = 32,000 mg/L, sea PFPW), at two different temperatures, and later reusing the desalted solution to prepare viscous solutions. For the electrodialysis runs, the effects of feed composition and temperature on water transport, energy consumption and current efficiency were analyzed. It was found that the presence of polymer did not significantly influence the water transport rate or the specific energy consumption for the seawater cases, but had a measurable effect when desalting brackish water at 20 °C. It was also found that some polymer remained in the stack, the loss occurring faster for the brackish PFPW. Still, both kinds of reused PFPW probed adequate to be employed as a basis for preparing n polymer solution.