The use of nontimber forest products (NTFPs) in tropical forest management is currently receiving greater attention. Use of NTFPs starts with extraction from natural forests but may gradually be intensified to cultivation of domesticated trees. In order to enhance understanding of the evolutionary processes in NTFP production, this article analyzes the different management systems of timur (Zanthoxylum armatum) production in Nepalese forests. Products of this medicinal plant are regularly traded with India. Four different management regimes on open-access state lands, two different types of community-controlled lands, and private lands are described, each being characterized by a specific set of access regimes, organizational rules for collecting and managing timur, and management practices. A gradual increase in management intensity takes place from public lands to private lands as a result of various socio economic and politico-legislative factors. In contrast to earlier Nepalese studies, increased market price rather than increased scarcity was found to be the most important factor inducing intensification. It is concluded that the effects of supply and demand factors on management intensity of NTFPs cannot be generalized; these effects depend on both the management and marketing characteristics of specific NTFPs.
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