Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Phylogeny and genetic diversity of the banana Fusarium wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense in the Indonesian centre of origin
Maryani, N. ; Lombard, L. ; Poerba, Y.S. ; Subandiyah, S. ; Crous, P.W. ; Kema, G.H.J. - \ 2019
Studies in Mycology 92 (2019). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 155 - 194.
11 New taxa - Morphology - New species - Panama disease - Pathogenicity - Tropical Race 4

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt or Panama disease on banana, is one of the major constraints in banana production worldwide. Indonesia is the centre of origin for wild and cultivated bananas, which likely co-evolved with Foc. This study explored the widest possible genetic diversity of Foc by sampling across Indonesia at 34 geographically and environmentally different locations in 15 provinces at six islands. This resulted in a comprehensive collection of ∼200 isolates from 40 different local banana varieties. Isolates were identified and assessed using sequence analysis of the translation elongation factor-1alpha (tef1), the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (rpb1), and the RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2). Phylogenetic analyses of these genes allowed the identification of 180 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), and 20 isolates of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC), the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC), and the Fusarium sambucinum species complex (FSSC). Further analyses, incorporating a worldwide collection of Foc strains, revealed nine independent genetic lineages for Foc, and one novel clade in the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC). Selected isolates from each lineage were tested on the banana varieties Gros Michel and Cavendish to characterise their pathogenicity profiles. More than 65 % of the isolates were diagnosed as Tropical Race 4 (Foc-TR4) due to their pathogenicity to Cavendish banana, which supports the hypothesis that Foc-TR4 is of Indonesian origin. Nine independent genetic lineages for Foc are formally described in this study. This biodiversity has not been studied since the initial description of Foc in 1919. This study provides a detailed overview of the complexity of Fusarium wilt on banana and its diversity and distribution across Indonesia.

Causal relationship in the interaction between land cover change and underlying surface climate in the grassland ecosystems in China
Li, Zhouyuan ; Wang, Zezhong ; Liu, Xuehua ; Fath, Brian D. ; Liu, Xiaofei ; Xu, Yanjie ; Hutjes, Ronald ; Kroeze, Carolien - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 647 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1080 - 1087.
Cause-effect - Correlation analysis - Eco-climatology - Grassland - Land-climate - Remote sensing

Land-climate interactions are driven by causal relations that are difficult to ascertain given the complexity and high dimensionality of the systems. Many methods of statistical and mechanistic models exist to identify and quantify the causality in such highly-interacting systems. Recent advances in remote sensing development allowed people to investigate the land-climate interaction with spatially and temporally continuous data. In this study, we present a new approach to measure how climatic factors interact with each other under land cover change. The quantification method is based on the correlation analysis of the different order derivatives, with the canonical mathematical definitions developed from the theories of system dynamics and practices of the macroscopic observations. We examined the causal relationship between the interacting variables on both spatial and temporal dimensions based on macroscopic observations of land cover change and surface climatic factors through a comparative study in the different grassland ecosystems of China. The results suggested that the interaction of land-climate could be used to explain the temporal lag effect in the comparison of the three grassland ecosystems. Significant spatial correlations between the vegetation and the climatic factors confirmed feedback mechanisms described in the theories of eco-climatology, while the uncertain temporal synchronicity reflects the causality among the key indicators. This has been rarely addressed before. Our research show that spatial correlations and the temporal synchronicity among key indicators of the land surface and climatic factors can be explained by a novel method of causality quantification using derivative analysis.

Facilitated delignification in CAD deficient transgenic poplar studied by confocal Raman spectroscopy imaging
Segmehl, Jana S. ; Keplinger, Tobias ; Krasnobaev, Artem ; Berg, John K. ; Willa, Christoph ; Burgert, Ingo - \ 2019
Spectrochimica Acta Part A-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 206 (2019). - ISSN 1386-1425 - p. 177 - 184.
CAD deficient poplar - Cellulose conformational change - Facilitated delignification - Lignocellulosic biomass - Raman spectroscopy imaging - X-ray diffraction

Lignocellulosic biomass represents the only renewable carbon resource which is available in sufficient amounts to be considered as an alternative for our fossil-based carbon economy. However, an efficient biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks is hindered by the natural recalcitrance of the biomass as a result of a dense network of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. These polymeric interconnections make a pretreatment of the biomass necessary in order to enhance the susceptibility of the polysaccharides. Here, we report on a detailed analysis of the favourable influence of genetic engineering for two common delignification protocols for lignocellulosic biomass, namely acidic bleaching and soda pulping, on the example of CAD deficient poplar. The altered lignin structure of the transgenic poplar results in a significantly accelerated and more complete lignin removal at lower temperatures and shorter reaction times compared to wildtype poplar. To monitor the induced chemical and structural alterations at the tissue level, confocal Raman spectroscopy imaging, FT-IR spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were used.

How can statistical and artificial intelligence approaches predict piping erosion susceptibility?
Hosseinalizadeh, Mohsen ; Kariminejad, Narges ; Rahmati, Omid ; Keesstra, Saskia ; Alinejad, Mohammad ; Mohammadian Behbahani, Ali - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 646 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1554 - 1566.
Loess plateau - Machine learning algorithms - Piping collapse - Susceptibility map - Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

It is of fundamental importance to model the relationship between geo-environmental factors and piping erosion because of the environmental degradation attributed to soil loss. Methods that identify areas prone to piping erosion at the regional scale are limited. The main objective of this research is to develop a novel modeling approach by using three machine learning algorithms—mixture discriminant analysis (MDA), flexible discriminant analysis (FDA), and support vector machine (SVM) in addition to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images to map susceptibility to piping erosion in the loess-covered hilly region of Golestan Province, Northeast Iran. In this research, we have used 22 geo-environmental indices/factors and 345 identified pipes as predictors and dependent variables. The piping susceptibility maps were assessed by the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Validation of the results showed that the AUC for the three mentioned algorithms varied from 90.32% to 92.45%. We concluded that the proposed approach could efficiently produce a piping susceptibility map.

Similarities and differences of the volatile profiles of six spices explored by Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry
Silvis, I.C.J. ; Luning, P.A. ; Klose, N. ; Jansen, M. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2019
Food Chemistry 271 (2019). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 318 - 327.
2-Butanone (PubChem CID: 6569) - Acetic acid (PubChem CID: 176) - Aroma - Cinnamaldehyde (PubChem CID: 637511) - Estragole (PubChem CID: 8815) - Fingerprints - Methanol (PubChem CID: 887) - Non-destructive - P-cymene (PubChem CID: 7463) - PTR-TOFMS - Safranal (PubChem CID: 61041) - Volatile compounds

Aroma properties of spices are related to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present, which can provide distinct analytical signatures. The aim of the study was to examine similarity and diversity of VOC profiles of six common market spices (black/white pepper, chili paprika, cinnamon, nutmeg and saffron). The key volatiles were identified by PTR-TOFMS. Twelve samples per spice were subjected to PTR-Quadrupole MS (PTR-QMS) and Principal Component Analysis to compare the groups and examine diversity. With PTR-TOFMS, 101 volatile compounds were identified as total sum across all samples by mass and comparing them with literature data. Some spices comprised key character aroma compounds, e.g. cinnamaldehyde in cinnamon. For others, VOC groups, such as terpenes, acids and aldehydes topped the list. The PTR-QMS in combination with variables selection resulted in distinct PCA patterns for each spice. Variation within the spice groups was observed, but varied with the kind of spice. The results are valuable for future authentication studies.

Assessing the influences of ecological restoration on perceptions of cultural ecosystem services by residents of agricultural landscapes of western China
Dou, Yuehan ; Zhen, Lin ; Yu, Xiubo ; Bakker, Martha ; Carsjens, Gerrit Jan ; Xue, Zhichao - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 646 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 685 - 695.
Agricultural landscapes - Cultural ecosystem services - Ecological restoration - Household survey - Human perception

Landscape change caused by ecological restoration projects has both positive and negative influences on human livelihoods, yet surprisingly little research on the cultural consequences of ecological restoration in agricultural landscapes has taken place. Cultural consequences can be captured in the ecosystem services framework as cultural ecosystem services (CES). However, assessment and valuation of these services to support decision-making for this essential ecosystem is lacking. To help fill this gap, we assessed the opinions of Chinese rural communities about CES and the changes in their perception under the Grain for Green program (GFG), a nationwide program to relieve the pressure on ecosystems (soil erosion and land degradation) by converting cultivated land or barren land on steep slopes into grassland and forests. We used Guyuan City in China's Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region as a case study, using a workshop to identify the CES provided by the agricultural landscape, followed by semi-structured household interviews to quantify perceptions of these CES. We found that all eight CES types identified by the workshop were perceived by the rural communities. Reforestation changed their perceptions of CES directly due to land cover change and indirectly due to the resulting economic changes and migration of mostly young workers in search of better jobs. Cultivated land was perceived as more important than forest for CES provision. In addition, residential areas were perceived as providing significant CES because of local traditions that produce close and highly social neighborhood bonds in agricultural landscapes.

Irrigation reduces the negative effect of global warming on winter wheat yield and greenhouse gas intensity
Li, Jiazhen ; Dong, Wenxu ; Oenema, Oene ; Chen, Tuo ; Hu, Chunsheng ; Yuan, Haijing ; Zhao, Liying - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 646 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 290 - 299.
Global warming potential - Greenhouse gas intensity - Greenhouse gases - Irrigation - Warming - Wheat yield

Global warming may exacerbate drought, decrease crop yield and affect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in semi-arid regions. However, the interactive effects of increases in temperature and water availability on winter wheat yield and GHG emissions in semi-arid climates are not well-understood. Here, we report on a two-year field experiment that examined the effects of a mean soil temperature increase of ~2 °C (at 5 cm depth) with and without additional irrigation on wheat yield and GHG emissions. Infrared heaters were placed above the crop canopy at a height of 1.8 m to simulate warming. Fluxes of CH4, CO2 and N2O were measured using closed static chamber technique once per week during the wheat growing seasons. Warming decreased wheat yield by 28% in the relatively dry year of 2015, while supplemental irrigation nullified the warming effect completely. Warming did not alter the wheat yield significantly in the relatively wet year of 2016, but supplemental irrigation with no warming decreased the wheat yield by 25%. Warming increased CO2 emissions by 28% and CH4 uptake by 24% and tended to decrease N2O emissions. Supplemental irrigation increased N2O emissions but had little effect on CO2 emissions and CH4 uptake. Evidently, warming and supplemental irrigation had interactive effects on wheat yield, GHG emissions and GHG emissions intensity. Precision irrigation appears to be a means of simultaneously increasing wheat yield and reducing GHG emissions under warming conditions in semi-arid areas.

Ground surface temperature and the detection of permafrost in the rugged topography on NE Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
Luo, Dongliang ; Jin, Huijun ; Bense, Victor F. - \ 2019
Geoderma 333 (2019). - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 57 - 68.
Elevational permafrost - Ground surface temperature - Qinghai-Tibet Plateau - Surface characteristics

The thermal regime of permafrost in the rugged topography on parts of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) remains ambiguous, due to general inaccessibility and inconvenient investigations with geophysical prospecting. While the relatively easy implementations of monitoring ground surface temperature (GST) may facilitate the investigations of permafrost thermal state. Here, surface freezing and thawing and the relationship between GST and permafrost temperature are investigated in the Bayan Har Mountains, NE QTP on the basis of 22 monitoring sites. Results demonstrate that, unlike the air temperature (Ta) mainly controlled by elevation, the GST is complicately influenced by elevation and the surface characteristics, such as vegetation, local soil textures, as well as the exposure to solar radiation. Mean annual GST (MAGST) ranges from 1.1 °C to −3.1 °C and is averaged at −0.8 °C. MAGST generally decreases at a lapse rate of 1.1 °C/100 m in relation to elevation. Surface freezing and thawing processes depend on topography and local surface characteristics. The onset of unstable thawing, stable thawing, unstable freezing, and stable freezing are averaged at 6 April 2015, 15 May 2015, 14 October 2015, and 21 October 2015. Based on the relationship between MAGST and the ground temperature at the depth of zero annual amplitude, GST likely serves as a reliable indicator of the thermal state of permafrost. For the 22 sites, it is estimated that the lowest TZAA of permafrost is −3.4 °C and the thickest permafrost is 106.2 m. However, detailed investigations of subsurface characteristics are indispensable for the accurate inference of permafrost.

Hot or not? Conveying sensory information on food packaging through the spiciness-shape correspondence
Gil-Pérez, Ignacio ; Rebollar, Rubén ; Lidón, Iván ; Martín, Javier ; Trijp, Hans C.M. van; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 71 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 197 - 208.
Categorisation - Expectations - Implicit measures - Packaging design - Semiotics

The packaging of a product is a key element in the communication between producers and consumers, so getting the consumer to interpret the packaging visual signs in the desired way is crucial to be successful in the marketplace. However, this is not easy as images can be ambiguous and may be interpreted in different ways. For example, depicting an icon of fire on the front of a bag of nuts may lead the consumer to interpret either that the nuts are spicy or that the nuts have been roasted. This paper addresses this problem and, using this case as an example, assesses if the interpretation of a fire icon (spicy vs roasted) can be modulated by manipulating its shape (angular vs rounded). 66 participants carried out an experiment which results show that there is a crossmodal correspondence between spiciness and pointy shapes and that this association can be used to modulate sensory expectations: in a speeded classification task, the bags of nuts depicting pointy fire icons were categorised more quickly as being spicy than as being roasted, while the opposite was true for the bags of nuts displaying rounded fire icons. In addition, the results of a mediation analysis suggest that this effect occurs indirectly through affective appraisal: the pointy fire icons were judged as being more aggressive than the rounded fire icons, which in turn raised spiciness expectations. These findings contribute to the research on crossmodal correspondences and semiotics by showing that the association between spiciness and abstract shapes can be used to modulate how people interpret an ambiguous image.

Oral processing behavior of drinkable, spoonable and chewable foods is primarily determined by rheological and mechanical food properties
Aguayo-Mendoza, Monica G. ; Ketel, Eva C. ; Linden, Erik van der; Forde, Ciarán G. ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 71 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 87 - 95.
Bite size - Consumption time - Eating rate - Food consistency - Food oral processing - Liking

Food oral processing plays a key role in sensory perception, consumer acceptance and food intake. However, little is known about the influence of physical food properties on oral processing of different type of food products. The primary objective of this study was to determine the influence of rheological and mechanical properties of foods on oral processing behavior of liquid (drinkable), semi-solid (spoonable) and solid foods (chewable). The secondary objective was to quantify the influence of product liking, frequency of consumption and familiarity on oral processing behavior. Rheological and mechanical properties of 18 commercially available foods were quantified. Parameters describing oral processing behavior such as sip and bite size, consumption time, eating rate, number of swallows, number of chews, cycle duration, and chewing rate were extracted from video recordings of 61 consumers. Subjects evaluated products’ liking, familiarity, and frequency of consumption using questionnaires. Consumers strongly adapted oral processing behavior with respect to bite size, consumption time, and eating rate to the rheological and mechanical properties of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods. This adaptation was observed within each food category. Chewing rate and chewing cycle duration of solid foods were not influenced by mechanical properties and remained relatively constant. Liking, familiarity, and consumption frequency showed to impact oral processing behavior, although to a lower degree than the rheological and mechanical properties of food. We conclude that the oral processing behaviors of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods are mainly determined by their rheological and mechanical properties.

Duckweed as human food. The influence of meal context and information on duckweed acceptability of Dutch consumers
Beukelaar, Myrthe F.A. de; Zeinstra, Gertrude G. ; Mes, Jurriaan J. ; Fischer, Arnout R.H. - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 71 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 76 - 86.
Consumer attitude - Duckweed - Fit - Information - Meal - Protein

Duckweed is considered a promising source of protein for human food products due to its high protein content and environmentally friendly production properties. In order to achieve successful inclusion in the diet, duckweed should be presented to consumers in an acceptable way. This paper explores Western consumers’ perceptions towards duckweed as human food and investigates in what contexts duckweed could be acceptable to consumers who are not used to eating it. In a first interview study (N = 10), consumers generally responded positively towards duckweed as human food, although associations with turbid ponds also did come up. According to the respondents, duckweed belonged to the food category vegetables. So, duckweed was considered to fit best in meals where vegetables and greens are expected. In a larger online survey (N = 669), it was confirmed that consumers had a more positive deliberate evaluation of duckweed and were more likely to accept a meal with duckweed if duckweed was applied in a fitting meal. It was also shown that providing information about nutritional and sustainability benefits increased deliberate evaluation and acceptability for fitting meals, but decreased it for non-fitting meals. Automatic evaluations positively influenced deliberate evaluation and acceptability, supporting the ‘yuck’ effect, but they did not differ between the meal applications. The current paper shows that if applied in a meal context that fits with consumer expectations, under the assumption that sensory properties like taste are satisfactory, there appear no major objections from consumers against the introduction of duckweed as human food at a larger scale.

Tourism innovation by hundling practices : a genealogy of the 'Zeelandpas' destination card
Derriks, T. ; Duim, V.R. van der; Peters, K.B.M. - \ 2019
In: Theories of Practice in Tourism / James, Laura, Ren, Carina, Halkier, Henrik, Oxxon : Routledge - ISBN 9781138061705 - p. 115 - 132.
Large-scale generation and analysis of filamentous fungal DNA barcodes boosts coverage for kingdom fungi and reveals thresholds for fungal species and higher taxon delimitation
Vu, D. ; Groenewald, M. ; Vries, M. de; Gehrmann, T. ; Stielow, B. ; Eberhardt, U. ; Al-Hatmi, A. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Cardinali, G. ; Houbraken, J. ; Boekhout, T. ; Crous, P.W. ; Robert, V. ; Verkley, G.J.M. - \ 2019
Studies in Mycology 92 (2019). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 135 - 154.
Automated curation - Biological resource centre - Fungi - ITS - LSU - Taxonomic thresholds

Species identification lies at the heart of biodiversity studies that has in recent years favoured DNA-based approaches. Microbial Biological Resource Centres are a rich source for diverse and high-quality reference materials in microbiology, and yet the strains preserved in these biobanks have been exploited only on a limited scale to generate DNA barcodes. As part of a project funded in the Netherlands to barcode specimens of major national biobanks, sequences of two nuclear ribosomal genetic markers, the Internal Transcribed Spaces and 5.8S gene (ITS) and the D1/D2 domain of the 26S Large Subunit (LSU), were generated as DNA barcode data for ca. 100 000 fungal strains originally assigned to ca. 17 000 species in the CBS fungal biobank maintained at the Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, Utrecht. Using more than 24 000 DNA barcode sequences of 12 000 ex-type and manually validated filamentous fungal strains of 7 300 accepted species, the optimal identity thresholds to discriminate filamentous fungal species were predicted as 99.6 % for ITS and 99.8 % for LSU. We showed that 17 % and 18 % of the species could not be discriminated by the ITS and LSU genetic markers, respectively. Among them, ∼8 % were indistinguishable using both genetic markers. ITS has been shown to outperform LSU in filamentous fungal species discrimination with a probability of correct identification of 82 % vs. 77.6 %, and a clustering quality value of 84 % vs. 77.7 %. At higher taxonomic classifications, LSU has been shown to have a better discriminatory power than ITS. With a clustering quality value of 80 %, LSU outperformed ITS in identifying filamentous fungi at the ordinal level. At the generic level, the clustering quality values produced by both genetic markers were low, indicating the necessity for taxonomic revisions at genus level and, likely, for applying more conserved genetic markers or even whole genomes. The taxonomic thresholds predicted for filamentous fungal identification at the genus, family, order and class levels were 94.3 %, 88.5 %, 81.2 % and 80.9 % based on ITS barcodes, and 98.2 %, 96.2 %, 94.7 % and 92.7 % based on LSU barcodes. The DNA barcodes used in this study have been deposited to GenBank and will also be publicly available at the Westerdijk Institute's website as reference sequences for fungal identification, marking an unprecedented data release event in global fungal barcoding efforts to date.

The development of a single-item Food Choice Questionnaire
Onwezen, M.C. ; Reinders, M.J. ; Verain, M.C.D. ; Snoek, H.M. - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 71 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 34 - 45.
Benefits - Construct - Food choice motives - Motivation - Reliability - Scale development - Single item measure - Validity
Based on the multi-item Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) originally developed by Steptoe and colleagues (1995), the current study developed a single-item FCQ that provides an acceptable balance between practical needs and psychometric concerns. Studies 1 (N = 1851) and 2 (2a (N = 3290), 2b (N = 4723), 2c (N = 270)) showed that the single-item FCQ scale has good convergent and discriminant validity. Generally, the results showed the highest correlations with the related multi-item dimensions (>0.40). Study 2 refined the scale. Only the items for convenience (Study 2a), sensory appeal (Study 2b) and mood (Study 2c) needed to be revised (as Study 1 showed a correlation between the multi-item and the single-item below the threshold of 0.60). The results also showed comparable predictive validity. Both methods revealed similar association patterns between food motives and consumption behaviours (Fisher's z tests revealed agreements of 86.2% for Study 1, 92.9% for Study 2a and 100% for Studies 2b and 2c). Study 3 (N = 6062) showed an example of the added value of a context-specific application for the single-item FCQ. Different motives were shown to be relevant across contexts, and the context-specific motives had additional explained variance beyond the general multi-item FCQ. Studies 2b and 3 also showed the performance of the single-item FCQ in an international context. In sum, the results indicate that the single-item FCQ can be used as a flexible and short substitute for the multi-item FCQ. The study also discusses the conditions that should be considered when using the single-item scale.
Functional diversity in nematode communities across terrestrial ecosystems
Sechi, Valentina ; Goede, Ron G.M. De; Rutgers, Michiel ; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Mulder, Christian - \ 2019
Basic and Applied Ecology 30 (2019). - ISSN 1439-1791 - p. 76 - 86.
Body-size distribution - Functional divergence - Functional evenness - Functional richness - Functional trait - Trophic groups

Functional diversity can be defined as the distribution of trait values within a community. Hence, functional diversity can be an indicator of habitat filtering and a reliable environmental predictor of ecosystem functioning. However, there is a serious lack of studies that test how functional diversity indices change depending on the environmental conditions. The aim of this study is to provide such evidence by analyzing the distribution and variation of continuous body-mass values (i.e. functional diversity) and related shifts in body length and width in a nematode community. We used a large online dataset on nematode traits to analyze: (i) the distribution of body mass using three functional diversity indices, i.e. functional richness, functional divergence and functional evenness; (ii) the shifts in body-size traits (length and width); and (iii) the body-mass distributions of five trophic groups and of the entire nematode community. Managed grasslands exhibited the widest range of body-mass values while body-mass distribution in arable fields covered the greatest area in comparison to the other ecosystem types. The shift in body size revealed environmental filters that could not have been identified by the study of functional diversity indices per se. We found low values of functional evenness to be associated with high values of functional richness. We provide novel empirical evidence that body-mass distribution within a trophic group mirrors the effects of habitat filtering more than the distribution in the community as a whole. Hence, our trait-based approach, more than functional diversity itself, disclosed soil food-web structure and identified community responses.

Genera of phytopathogenic fungi : GOPHY 2
Marin-Felix, Y. ; Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Akulov, A. ; Carnegie, A.J. ; Cheewangkoon, R. ; Gramaje, D. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Guarnaccia, V. ; Halleen, F. ; Lombard, L. ; Luangsa-ard, J. ; Marincowitz, S. ; Moslemi, A. ; Mostert, L. ; Quaedvlieg, W. ; Schumacher, R.K. ; Spies, C.F.J. ; Thangavel, R. ; Taylor, P.W.J. ; Wilson, A.M. ; Wingfield, B.D. ; Wood, A.R. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2019
Studies in Mycology 92 (2019). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 47 - 133.
26 new taxa - DNA barcodes - Fungal systematics - Six new typifications

This paper represents the second contribution in the Genera of Phytopathogenic Fungi (GOPHY) series. The series provides morphological descriptions and information regarding the pathology, distribution, hosts and disease symptoms for the treated genera. In addition, primary and secondary DNA barcodes for the currently accepted species are included. This second paper in the GOPHY series treats 20 genera of phytopathogenic fungi and their relatives including: Allantophomopsiella, Apoharknessia, Cylindrocladiella, Diaporthe, Dichotomophthora, Gaeumannomyces, Harknessia, Huntiella, Macgarvieomyces, Metulocladosporiella, Microdochium, Oculimacula, Paraphoma, Phaeoacremonium, Phyllosticta, Proxypiricularia, Pyricularia, Stenocarpella, Utrechtiana and Wojnowiciella. This study includes the new genus Pyriculariomyces, 20 new species, five new combinations, and six typifications for older names.

The Colletotrichum dracaenophilum, C. magnum and C. orchidearum species complexes
Damm, U. ; Sato, T. ; Alizadeh, A. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2019
Studies in Mycology 92 (2019). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 1 - 46.
Anthracnose - Ascomycota - Colletotrichum - Gloeosporium - Glomerella - Phylogeny - Systematics

Although Glomerella glycines, Colletotrichum magnum and C. orchidearum are known as causal agents of anthracnose of soybean, Cucurbitaceae and Orchidaceae, respectively, their taxonomy remains unresolved. In preliminary analyses based on ITS, strains of these species appear basal in Colletotrichum phylogenies, clustering close to C. cliviae, C. brevisporum and other recently described species from tropical or subtropical regions. Phylogenetic analyses (ITS, GAPDH, CHS-1, HIS3, ACT, TUB2) of 102 strains previously identified as Ga. glycines, C. magnum and C. orchidearum as well as other related strains from different culture collections and studies placed these taxa in three species complexes, and distinguished at least 24 species, including 11 new species. In this study, C. magnum, C. orchidearum and C. piperis were epitypified and their taxonomy resolved, while C. cliviicola was proposed as a new name for C. cliviae. Furthermore, a sexual morph was observed for C. yunnanense, while C. brevisporum, C. cliviicola and C. tropicicola were reported from new hosts or countries. Regarding their conidial morphology, species in the C. dracaenophilum, C. magnum and C. orchidearum species complexes are reminiscent of C. gloeosporioides or C. boninense s. lat., and were likely to be confused with them in the past.

Scientific committee
Schroen, Karin - \ 2019
Ondanks lager CO2-niveau dan praktijk toch ruim 65 kg tomaten per m2: 2SaveEnergy kas maakt besparingsbelofte waar
Kempkes, Frank ; Janse, Jan - \ 2018
Natuurlijke afweerstoffen siergewas inzetbaar als gewasbescherming: doorontwikkeling van proefkas tot echt middel
Staaij, Marieke van der; Poot, Eric - \ 2018
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