Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Emission ratio and isotopic signatures of molecular hydrogen emissions from tropical biomass burning
Haumann, F.A. ; Batenburg, A.M. ; Pieterse, G. ; Gerbig, C. ; Krol, M.C. ; Rockmann, T. - \ 2013
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13 (2013)18. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 9401 - 9413.
atmospheric hydrogen - assimilation system - land-surface - amazon basin - trace gases - tall tower - model tm5 - h-2 - chemistry - plants
In this study, we identify a biomass-burning signal in molecular hydrogen (H-2) over the Amazonian tropical rainforest. To quantify this signal, we measure the mixing ratios of H-2 and several other species as well as the H-2 isotopic composition in air samples that were collected in the BARCA (Balanco Atmosferico Regional de Carbono na Amazonia) aircraft campaign during the dry season. We derive a relative H-2 emission ratio with respect to carbon monoxide (CO) of 0.31 +/- 0.04 ppb ppb(-1) and an isotopic source signature of -280 +/- 41 parts per thousand in the air masses influenced by tropical biomass burning. In order to retrieve a clear source signal that is not influenced by the soil uptake of H-2, we exclude samples from the atmospheric boundary layer. This procedure is supported by data from a global chemistry transport model. The Delta H-2/Delta CO emission ratio is significantly lower than some earlier estimates for the tropical rainforest. In addition, our results confirm the lower values of the previously conflicting estimates of the H-2 isotopic source signature from biomass burning. These values for the emission ratio and isotopic source signatures of H-2 from tropical biomass burning can be used in future bottom-up and top-down approaches aiming to constrain the strength of the biomass-burning source for H-2. Hitherto, these two quantities relied only on combustion experiments or on statistical relations, since no direct signal had been obtained from in-situ observations.
Atmospheric CH4 in the first decade of the 21st century: Inverse modeling analysis using SCIAMACHY satellite retrievals and NOAA surface measurements
Bergamaschi, P. ; Houweling, S. ; Segers, A. ; Krol, M.C. ; Frankenberg, C. ; Scheepmaker, R.A. ; Dlugokencky, E. ; Wofsy, S.C. ; Kort, E.A. ; Sweeney, C. ; Schuck, T. ; Brenninkmeijer, C. ; Chen, H. ; Beck, V. ; Gerbig, C. - \ 2013
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118 (2013)13. - ISSN 2169-897X - p. 7350 - 7369.
growth-rate - methane emissions - carbon-dioxide - northern-hemisphere - data assimilation - transport model - variability - chemistry - climate - troposphere
The causes of renewed growth in the atmospheric CH4 burden since 2007 are still poorly understood and subject of intensive scientific discussion. We present a reanalysis of global CH4 emissions during the 2000s, based on the TM5-4DVAR inverse modeling system. The model is optimized using high-accuracy surface observations from NOAA ESRL's global air sampling network for 2000-2010 combined with retrievals of column-averaged CH4 mole fractions from SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (starting 2003). Using climatological OH fields, derived global total emissions for 2007-2010 are 16-20 Tg CH4/yr higher compared to 2003-2005. Most of the inferred emission increase was located in the tropics (9-14 Tg CH4/yr) and mid- latitudes of the northern hemisphere (6-8 Tg CH4/yr), while no significant trend was derived for Arctic latitudes. The atmospheric increase can be attributed mainly to increased anthropogenic emissions, but the derived trend is significantly smaller than estimated in the EDGARv4.2 emission inventory. Superimposed on the increasing trend in anthropogenic CH4 emissions are significant inter-annual variations (IAV) of emissions from wetlands (up to +/- 10 Tg CH4/yr), and biomass burning (up to +/- 7 Tg CH4/yr). Sensitivity experiments, which investigated the impact of the SCIAMACHY observations (versus inversions using only surface observations), of the OH fields used, and of a priori emission inventories, resulted in differences in the detailed latitudinal attribution of CH4 emissions, but the IAV and trends aggregated over larger latitude bands were reasonably robust. All sensitivity experiments show similar performance against independent shipboard and airborne observations used for validation, except over Amazonia where satellite retrievals improved agreement with observations in the free troposphere.
Letter tot the editor: Iconic CO2 Time Series at Risk
Houweling, S. ; Badawy, B. ; Baker, D.F. ; Basu, S. ; Belikov, D. ; Bergamaschi, P. ; Bousquet, P. ; Broquet, G. ; Butler, T. ; Canadell, J.G. ; Chen, J. ; Chevallier, F. ; Ciais, P. ; Collatz, G.J. ; Denning, S. ; Engelen, R. ; Enting, I.G. ; Fischer, M.L. ; Fraser, A. ; Gerbig, C. ; Gloor, M. ; Jacobson, A.R. ; Jones, D.B.A. ; Heimann, M. ; Khalil, A. ; Kaminski, T. ; Kasibhatla, P.S. ; Krakauer, N.Y. ; Krol, M. ; Maki, T. ; Maksyutov, S. ; Manning, A. ; Meesters, A. ; Miller, J.B. ; Palmer, P.I. ; Patra, P. ; Peters, W. ; Peylin, P. ; Poussi, Z. ; Prather, M.J. ; Randerson, J.T. ; Rockmann, T. ; Rodenbeck, C. ; Sarmiento, J.L. ; Schimel, D.S. ; Scholze, M. ; Schuh, A. ; Suntharalingam, P. ; Takahashi, T. ; Turnbull, J. ; Yurganov, L. ; Vermeulen, A. - \ 2012
Science 337 (2012)6098. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 1038 - 1040.
CO2, dO2/N2 and APO: observations from the Lutjewad, Mace Head and F3 platform flask sampling network
Laan-Luijkx, I.T. van der; Karstens, U. ; Steinbach, J. ; Gerbig, C. ; Sirignano, C. ; Neubert, R.E.M. ; Laan, S. van der; Meijer, H.A.J. - \ 2010
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10 (2010)21. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 10691 - 10704.
atmospheric oxygen measurements - global carbon-cycle - gas-chromatograph - o-2/n-2 ratio - o-2 - air - variability - dioxide - sinks - emissions
We report results from our atmospheric flask sampling network for three European sites: Lutjewad in the Netherlands, Mace Head in Ireland and the North Sea F3 platform. The air samples from these stations are analyzed for their CO2 and O2 concentrations. In this paper we present the CO2 and O2 data series from these sites between 1998 and 2009, as well as the atmospheric potential oxygen (APO). The seasonal pattern and long term trends agree to a large extent between our three measurement locations. We however find a changing gradient between Mace Head and Lutjewad, both for CO2 and O2. To explain the potential contribution of fossil fuel emissions to this changing gradient we use an atmospheric transport model in combination with CO2 emission data and information on the fossil fuel mix per region. Using the APO trend from Mace Head we obtain an estimate for the global oceanic CO2 uptake of 1.8 ± 0.8 PgC/year.
The importance of transport model uncertainties for the estimation of CO2 sources and sinks using satellite measurements
Houweling, S. ; Aben, I. ; Breon, F.M. ; Chevallier, F. ; Deutscher, N. ; Engelen, R. ; Gerbig, C. ; Griffith, D. ; Hungershoefer, K. ; Macatangay, R. ; Marshall, J. ; Notholt, J. ; Peters, W. ; Serrar, S. - \ 2010
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10 (2010)20. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 9981 - 9992.
klimaatverandering - broeikasgassen - kooldioxide - monitoring - remote sensing - climatic change - greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide - variational data assimilation - atmospheric co2 - source inversions - space - performance - fluxes - errors
This study presents a synthetic model intercomparison to investigate the importance of transport model errors for estimating the sources and sinks of CO2 using satellite measurements. The experiments were designed for testing the potential performance of the proposed CO2 lidar A-SCOPE, but also apply to other space borne missions that monitor total column CO2. The participating transport models IFS, LMDZ, TM3, and TM5 were run in forward and inverse mode using common a priori CO2 fluxes and initial concentrations. Forward simulations of column averaged CO2 (xCO2) mixing ratios vary between the models by s=0.5 ppm over the continents and s=0.27 ppm over the oceans. Despite the fact that the models agree on average on the sub-ppm level, these modest differences nevertheless lead to significant discrepancies in the inverted fluxes of 0.1 PgC/yr per 106 km2 over land and 0.03 PgC/yr per 106 km2 over the ocean. These transport model induced flux uncertainties exceed the target requirement that was formulated for the A-SCOPE mission of 0.02 PgC/yr per 106 km2, and could also limit the overall performance of other CO2 missions such as GOSAT. A variable, but overall encouraging agreement is found in comparison with FTS measurements at Park Falls, Darwin, Spitsbergen, and Bremen, although systematic differences are found exceeding the 0.5 ppm level. Because of this, our estimate of the impact of transport model uncerainty is likely to be conservative. It is concluded that to make use of the remote sensing technique for quantifying the sources and sinks of CO2 not only requires highly accurate satellite instruments, but also puts stringent requirements on the performance of atmospheric transport models. Improving the accuracy of these models should receive high priority, which calls for a closer collaboration between experts in atmospheric dynamics and tracer transport
CO2 budgeting at the regional scale using a Lagrangian experimental strategy and meso-scale modeling
Sarrat, C. ; Noilhan, J. ; Lacarrere, P. ; Masson, P.J.H. ; Ceschia, E. ; Ciais, P. ; Dolman, H. ; Elbers, J.A. ; Gerbig, C. ; Jarosz, N. - \ 2009
Biogeosciences 6 (2009). - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 113 - 127.
klimaatverandering - kooldioxide - modellen - bovenlagen - emissie - climatic change - carbon dioxide - models - surface layers - emission - hapex-mobilhy - atmospheric co2 - surface - parameters - resolution - inversion - database - fluxes
An atmospheric Lagrangian experiment for regional CO2 budgeting with aircraft measurements took place during the CarboEurope Regional Experiment Strategy campaign (CERES) in south-west France, in June 2005. The atmospheric CO2 aircraft measurements taken upstream and downstream of an active and homogeneous pine forest revealed a CO2 depletion in the same air mass, using a Lagrangian strategy. This field experiment was analyzed with a meteorological meso-scale model interactively coupled with a surface scheme, with plant assimilation, ecosystem respiration, anthropogenic CO2 emissions and sea fluxes. First, the model was carefully validated against observations made close to the surface and in the atmospheric boundary layer. Then, the carbon budget was evaluated using the numerous CERES observations, by upscaling the surface fluxes observations, and using the modeling results, in order to estimate the relative contribution of each physical process. A good agreement is found between the two methods which use the same vegetation map: the estimation of the regional CO2 surface flux by the Eulerian meso-scale model budget is close to the budget deduced from the upscaling of the observed surface fluxes, and found a budget between -9.4 and -12.1 µmol.m-2.s-1, depending on the size of the considered area. Nevertheless, the associated uncertainties are rather large for the upscaling method and reach 50%. A third method, using Lagrangian observations of CO2 estimates a regional CO2 budget a few different and more scattered, (-16.8 µmol.m-2.s-1 for the small sub-domain and -8.6 µmol.m-2.s-1 for the larger one). For this budgeting method, we estimate a mean of 31% error, mainly arising from the time of integration between the two measurements of the Lagrangian experiment. The paper describes in details the three methods to assess the regional CO2 budget and the associated errors
Bridging the gap between atmospheric concentrations and local ecosystem measurements
Lauvaux, T. ; Gioli, B. ; Sarrat, C. ; Rayner, P.J. ; Ciais, P. ; Chevallier, F. ; Noilhan, J. ; Miglietta, F. ; Brunet, Y. ; Ceschia, E. ; Dolman, H. ; Elbers, J.A. ; Gerbig, C. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Jarosz, N. ; Legain, D. ; Uliasz, M. - \ 2009
Geophysical Research Letters 36 (2009). - ISSN 0094-8276 - 5
kooldioxide - concentratie - meettechnieken - atmosfeer - carbon dioxide - concentration - measurement techniques - atmosphere - co2 sources - models - simulations
This paper demonstrates that atmospheric inversions of CO2 are a reliable tool for estimating regional fluxes. We compare results of an inversion over 18 days and a 300 × 300 km2 domain in southwest France against independent measurements of fluxes from aircraft and towers. The inversion used concentration measurements from 2 towers while the independent data included 27 aircraft transects and 5 flux towers. The inversion reduces the mismatch between prior and independent fluxes, improving both spatial and temporal structures. The present mesoscale atmospheric inversion improves by 30% the CO2 fluxes over distances of few hundreds of km around the atmospheric measurement locations
Mesoscale modelling of the CO2 interactions between the surface and the atmosphere applied to the April 2007 CERES field experiment
Sarrat, C. ; Noilhan, J. ; Lacarrère, P. ; Ceschia, E. ; Ciais, P. ; Dolman, A.J. ; Elbers, J.A. ; Gerbig, C. ; Gioli, B. ; Lauvaux, T. ; Miglietta, F. ; Neininger, B. ; Ramonet, M. ; Vellinga, O.S. ; Bonnefonds, J.M. - \ 2009
Biogeosciences 6 (2009)4. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 633 - 646.
hapex-mobilhy - regional-scale - fluxes - parameterization - simulation - resolution - database - strategy
This paper describes a numerical interpretation of the April 2007, CarboEurope Regional Experiment Strategy (CERES) campaign, devoted to the study of the CO2 cycle at the regional scale. Four consecutive clear sky days with intensive observations of CO2 concentration, fluxes at the surface and in the boundary layer have been simulated with the Meso-NH mesoscale model, coupled to ISBA-A-gs land surface model. The main result of this paper is to show how aircraft observations of CO2 concentration have been used to identify surface model errors and to calibrate the CO2 driving component of the surface model. In fact, the comparisons between modelled and observed CO2 concentrations within the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) allow to calibrate and correct not only the parameterization of respired CO2 fluxes by the ecosystem but also the Leaf Area Index (LAI) of the dominating land cover. After this calibration, the paper describes systematic comparisons of the model outputs with numerous data collected during the CERES campaign, in April 2007. For instance, the originality of this paper is the spatial integration of the comparisons. In fact, the aircraft observations of CO2 concentration and fluxes and energy fluxes are used for the model validation from the local to the regional scale. As a conclusion, the CO2 budgeting approach from the mesoscale model shows that the winter croplands are assimilating more CO2 than the pine forest, at this stage of the year and this case study.
Mesoscale modeling of the CO2 interactions between the surface and the atmosphere applied to the April 2007 CERES field experiment
Sarrat, C. ; Noilhan, J. ; Lacarrere, P. ; Dolman, A.J. ; Gerbig, C. ; Elbers, J.A. ; Vellinga, O.S. ; Gioli, B. ; Miglietta, F. ; Neininger, B. ; Lavaux, T. ; Ciais, P. ; Ramonet, M. ; Ceschia, E. ; Bonnefonds, J.M. - \ 2009
Biogeosciences Discussions 6 (2009). - ISSN 1810-6277 - p. 515 - 544.
kooldioxide - concentratie - koolstofcyclus - atmosferische grenslaag - meteorologische waarnemingen - simulatiemodellen - carbon dioxide - concentration - carbon cycle - atmospheric boundary-layer - meteorological observations - simulation models
The paper describes a numerical interpretation of the April 2007 CarboEurope Regional Experiment Strategy (CERES) campaign, devotedto the study of CO2 cycle at the regional scale. The four consecutive clear sky days with intensive observations of CO2 concentration, 5 fluxes at the the surface and in the boundary layer have been simulated with the Meso-NH mesoscale model. Aircraft observations of CO2 have been used to identify surface modelling errors and to calibrate the CO2 components of the surface model. After this calibration, the paper describes a systematic comparison of the model outputs with all the data collected during CERES, in April 2007. As a 10 conclusion, an example of CO2 budgeting from the mesoscale model is given.
Regional Measurements and Modelling of Carbon Exchange
Dolman, A.J. ; Noilhan, J. ; Tolk, L. ; Molen, M.K. van der; Lauvaux, T. ; Gerbig, C. ; Miglietta, F. - \ 2008
In: The Continental-Scale Greenhouse Gas Balance of Europe / Dolman, H., Valentini, R., Freibauer, A., Springer (Ecological Studies 123) - ISBN 9781441926289 - p. 285 - 307.
The concentrations of CO2 and CH4 in the atmosphere are at the highest level they have been in the past 650,000 years. "The Continental-Scale Greenhouse Gas Balance of Europe", edited by A. Johannes Dolman, Annette Freibauer and Riccardo Valentini, highlights current results of research into the European greenhouse gases budget, including human-induced and biospheric sources and sinks. Much of this work is executed through the CarboEurope project, one of the world’s foremost research programs on continental-scale carbon cycle research.
Atmospheric CO2 modeling at the regional scale: an intercomparison of 5 meso-scale atmospheric models
Sarrat, C. ; Noilhan, J. ; Dolman, A.J. ; Gerbig, C. ; Ahmadov, R. ; Tolk, L.F. ; Meesters, A.G.C.A. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Maat, H.W. ter; Pérez-Landa, G. ; Donier, S. - \ 2007
Biogeosciences 4 (2007)3. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 1115 - 1126.
broeikasgassen - kooldioxide - klimaatverandering - emissiereductie - modellen - greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide - climatic change - emission reduction - models - transport - fluxes
Atmospheric CO2 modeling in interaction with the surface fluxes, at the regional scale is developed within the frame of the European project CarboEurope-IP and its Regional Experiment component. In this context, five meso-scale meteorological models participate in an intercomparison exercise. Using a common experimental protocol that imposes a large number of rules, two days of the CarboEurope Regional Experiment Strategy (CERES) campaign are simulated. A systematic evaluation of the models is done in confrontation with the observations, using statistical tools and direct comparisons. Thus, temperature and relative humidity at 2 m, wind direction, surface energy and CO2 fluxes, vertical profiles of potential temperature as well as in-situ CO2 concentrations comparisons between observations and simulations are examined. This intercomparison exercise shows also the models ability to represent the meteorology and carbon cycling at the synoptic and regional scale in the boundary layer, but also points out some of the major shortcomings of the models.
The CarboEurope regional experiment strategy
Dolman, A.J. ; Noilhan, J. ; Durand, P. ; Sarrat, C. ; Brut, A. ; Piguet, B. ; Butet, A. ; Jarosz, N. ; Brunet, Y. ; Loustau, D. ; Lamaud, E. ; Tolk, L.F. ; Ronda, R. ; Miglietta, F. ; Gioli, B. ; Magliulo, V. ; Esposito, M. ; Gerbig, C. ; Körner, S. ; Glademard, P. ; Ramonet, M. ; Ciais, P. ; Neininger, B. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Elbers, J.A. ; Macatangay, R. ; Schrems, O. ; Pérez-Landa, G. ; Sanz, J. ; Scholz, Y. ; Facon, G. ; Ceschia, E. ; Beziat, P. - \ 2006
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 87 (2006)10. - ISSN 0003-0007 - p. 1367 - 1379.
broeikasgassen - kooldioxide - klimaatverandering - meteorologie - frankrijk - greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide - climatic change - meteorology - france - boundary-layer budgets - atmospheric transport - hapex-mobilhy - co2 - carbon - surface - model - scale - flux - exchange
Quantification of sources and sinks of carbon at global and regional scales requires not only a good description of the land sources and sinks of carbon, but also of the synoptic and mesoscale meteorology. An experiment was performed in Les Landes, southwest France, during May¿June 2005, to determine the variability in concentration gradients and fluxes of CO2. The CarboEurope Regional Experiment Strategy (CERES; see also http://carboregional.mediasfrance.org/index) aimed to produce aggregated estimates of the carbon balance of a region that can be meaningfully compared to those obtained from the smallest downscaled information of atmospheric measurements and continental-scale inversions. We deployed several aircraft to concentration sample the CO2 and fluxes over the whole area, while fixed stations observed the fluxes and concentrations at high accuracy. Several (mesoscale) meteorological modeling tools were used to plan the experiment and flight patterns. Results show that at regional scale the relation between profiles and fluxes is not obvious, and is strongly influenced by airmass history and mesoscale flow patterns. In particular, we show from an analysis of data for a single day that taking either the concentration at several locations as representative of local fluxes or taking the flux measurements at those sites as representative of larger regions would lead to incorrect conclusions about the distribution of sources and sinks of carbon. Joint consideration of the synoptic and regional flow, fluxes, and land surface is required for a correct interpretation. This calls for an experimental and modeling strategy that takes into account the large spatial gradients in concentrations and the variability in sources and sinks that arise from different land use types. We briefly describe how such an analysis can be performed and evaluate the usefulness of the data for planning of future networks or longer campaigns with reduced experimental efforts.
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