Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Phacidium and Ceuthospora (Phacidiaceae) are congeneric: taxonomic and nomenclatural implications
Crous, P.W. ; Quaedvlieg, W. ; Hansen, K. ; Hawksworth, D.L. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2014
IMA fungus 5 (2014)2. - ISSN 2210-6340 - p. 173 - 193.
The morphologically diverse genus Ceuthospora has traditionally been linked to Phacidium sexual morphs via association, though molecular or cultural data to confirm this relationship have been lacking. The aim of this study was thus to resolve the relationship of these two genera by generating nucleotide sequence data for three loci, ITS, LSU and RPB2. Based on these results, Ceuthospora is reduced to synonymy under the older generic name Phacidium. Phacidiaceae (currently Helotiales) is suggested to constitute a separate order, Phacidiales (Leotiomycetes), as sister to Helotiales, which is clearly paraphyletic. Phacidiaceae includes Bulgaria, and consequently the family Bulgariaceae becomes a synonym of Phacidiaceae. Several new combinations are introduced in Phacidium, along with two new species, P. pseudophacidioides, which occurs on Ilex and Chamaespartium in Europe, and Phacidium trichophori, which occurs on Trichophorum cespitosum subsp. germanicum in The Netherlands. The generic name Allantophomopsiella is introduced to accommodate A. pseudotsugae, a pathogen of conifers, while Gremmenia is resurrected to accommodate the snow-blight pathogens of conifers, G. abietis, G. infestans, and G. pini-cembrae.
Finding needles in haystacks: linking scientific names, reference specimens and molecular data for Fungi
Schoch, C.L. ; Robbertse, B. ; Robert, V. ; Vu, D. ; Cardinali, G. ; Irinyi, L. ; Meyer, W. ; Nilsson, R.H. ; Hughes, K. ; Miller, A.N. ; Kirk, P.M. ; Abarenkov, K. ; Aime, M.C. ; Ariyawansa, H.A. ; Bidartondo, M. ; Boekhout, T. ; Buyck, B. ; Cai, Q. ; Chen, J. ; Crespo, A. ; Crous, P.W. ; Damm, U. ; Beer, Z.W. de; Dentinger, B.T.M. ; Divakar, P.K. ; Duenas, M. ; Feau, N. ; Fliegerova, K. ; Garcia, M.A. ; Ge, Z.W. ; Griffith, G.W. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Groenewald, M. ; Grube, M. ; Gryzenhout, M. ; Gueidan, C. ; Guo, L. ; Hambleton, S. ; Hamelin, R. ; Hansen, K. ; Hofstetter, V. ; Hong, S.B. ; Houbraken, J. ; Hyde, K.D. ; Inderbitzin, P. ; Johnston, P.A. ; Karunarathna, S.C. ; Koljalg, U. ; Kovacs, G.M. ; Kraichak, E. ; Krizsan, K. ; Kurtzman, C.P. ; Larsson, K.H. ; Leavitt, S. ; Letcher, P.M. ; Liimatainen, K. ; Liu, J.K. ; Lodge, D.J. ; Luangsa-ard, J.J. ; Lumbsch, H.T. ; Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N. ; Manamgoda, D. ; Martin, M.P. ; Minnis, A.M. ; Moncalvo, J.M. ; Mule, G. ; Nakasone, K.K. ; Niskanen, T. ; Olariaga, I. ; Papp, T. ; Petkovits, T. ; Pino-Bodas, R. ; Powell, M.J. ; Raja, H.A. ; Redecker, D. ; Sarmiento-Ramirez, J.M. ; Seifert, K.A. ; Shrestha, B. ; Stenroos, S. ; Stielow, B. ; Suh, S.O. ; Tanaka, K. ; Tedersoo, L. ; Telleria, M.T. ; Udayanga, D. ; Untereiner, W.A. ; Dieguez Uribeondo, J. ; Subbarao, K.V. ; Vagvolgyi, C. ; Visagie, C. ; Voigt, K. ; Walker, D.M. ; Weir, B.S. ; Weiss, M. ; Wijayawardene, N.N. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Xu, J.P. ; Yang, Z.L. ; Zhang, N. ; Zhuang, W.Y. ; Federhen, S. - \ 2014
Database : the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation 2014 (2014). - ISSN 1758-0463 - 21 p.
internal transcribed spacer - arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi - ribosomal dna - interspecific hybridization - sequence analyses - species complex - identification - evolution - barcode - life
DNA phylogenetic comparisons have shown that morphology-based species recognition often underestimates fungal diversity. Therefore, the need for accurate DNA sequence data, tied to both correct taxonomic names and clearly annotated specimen data, has never been greater. Furthermore, the growing number of molecular ecology and microbiome projects using high-throughput sequencing require fast and effective methods for en masse species assignments. In this article, we focus on selecting and re-annotating a set of marker reference sequences that represent each currently accepted order of Fungi. The particular focus is on sequences from the internal transcribed spacer region in the nuclear ribosomal cistron, derived from type specimens and/or ex-type cultures. Re-annotated and verified sequences were deposited in a curated public database at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), namely the RefSeq Targeted Loci (RTL) database, and will be visible during routine sequence similarity searches with NR_prefixed accession numbers. A set of standards and protocols is proposed to improve the data quality of new sequences, and we suggest how type and other reference sequences can be used to improve identification of Fungi.
MycoBank gearing up for new horizons
Robert, V. ; Vu, D. ; Amor, A.B.H. ; Wiele, N. van de; Brouwer, C. ; Jabas, B. ; Szoke, S. ; Dridi, A. ; Triki, M. ; Daoud, S. ben; Chouchen, O. ; Vaas, L. ; Cock, A. de; Stalpers, J.A. ; Stalpers, D. ; Verkley, G.J.M. ; Groenewald, M. ; Borges dos Santos, F. ; Stegehuis, G. ; Li, W. ; Wu, L. ; Zhang, R. ; Ma, J. ; Zhou, M. ; Gorjón, S.P. ; Eurwilaichitr, L. ; Ingsriswang, S. ; Hansen, K. ; Schoch, C. ; Robbertse, B. ; Irinyi, L. ; Meyer, W. ; Cardinali, G. ; Hawksworth, D.L. ; Taylor, J.W. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2013
IMA fungus 4 (2013)2. - ISSN 2210-6340 - p. 371 - 379.
MycoBank, a registration system for fungi established in 2004 to capture all taxonomic novelties, acts as a coordination hub between repositories such as Index Fungorum and Fungal Names. Since January 2013, registration of fungal names is a mandatory requirement for valid publication under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN). This review explains the database innovations that have been implemented over the past few years, and discusses new features such as advanced queries, registration of typification events (MBT numbers for lecto, epi- and neotypes), the multi-lingual database interface, the nomenclature discussion forum, annotation system, and web services with links to third parties. MycoBank has also introduced novel identification services, linking DNA sequence data to numerous related databases to enable intelligent search queries. Although MycoBank fills an important void for taxon registration, challenges for the future remain to improve links between taxonomic names and DNA data, and to also introduce a formal system for naming fungi known from DNA sequence data only. To further improve the quality of MycoBank data, remote access will now allow registered mycologists to act as MycoBank curators, using Citrix software.
A without-prejudice list of generic names of fungi for protection under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants
Kirk, P.M. ; Stalpers, J.A. ; Braun, U. ; Crous, P.W. ; Hansen, K. ; Hawksworth, D.L. ; Hyde, K.D. ; Lücking, R. ; Lumbsch, T.H. ; Rossman, A.Y. ; Seifert, K.A. ; Stadler, M. - \ 2013
IMA fungus 4 (2013)2. - ISSN 2210-6340 - p. 381 - 443.
As a first step towards the production of a List of Protected Generic Names for Fungi, a without-prejudice list is presented here as a basis for future discussion and the production of a List for formal adoption. We include 6995 generic names out of the 17072 validly published names proposed for fungi and invite comments from all interested mycologists by 31 March 2014. The selection of names for inclusion takes note of recent major publications on different groups of fungi, and further the decisions reached so far by international working groups concerned with particular families or genera. Changes will be sought in the Code to provide for this and lists at other ranks to be protected against any competing unlisted names, and to permit the inclusion of names of lichen-forming fungi. A revised draft will be made available for further discussion at the 10th International Mycological Congress in Bangkok in August 2014. A schedule is suggested for the steps needed to produce a list for adoption by the International Botanical Congress in August 2017. This initiative provides mycologists with an opportunity to place nomenclature at the generic level on a more secure and stable base.
Towards the integration of research and monitoring at forest ecosystems in Europe
Danielewska, A. ; Paoletti, E. ; Clarke, N. ; Olejnik, J. ; Urbaniak, M. ; Baran, M. ; Siedlecki, P. ; Hansen, K. ; Lundin, L. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2013
Forest Systems 22 (2013)3. - ISSN 2171-5068 - p. 535 - 545.
eddy covariance measurements - carbon balance - climate-change - air-pollution - mixed forest - heat fluxes - water-vapor - co2 - exchange - boreal
Aim of study: The main aim of the work was to summarize availability, quality and comparability of on-going European Research and Monitoring Networks (ERMN), based on the results of a COST FP0903 Action questionnaire carried out in September 2010 and May 2012. Area of study: The COST Action FP0903 involves 29 European countries and 4 non-COST institutions from USA, Morocco and Tunisia. In this study, the total of 22 replies to the questionnaire from 18 countries were included. Materials and methods: Based on the feedback from the Action FP0903 countries, the most popular European Networks were identified. Thereafter, the access to the network database, available quality assurance/quality control procedures and publication were described. Finally, the so-called “Supersites” concept, defined as a “highly instrumented research infrastructure, for both research and monitoring of soil-plant-atmosphere interactions” was discussed. Main results: The result of the survey indicate that the vast majority of the Action FP0903 countries participate in the International Cooperative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forest (ICP Forest). The multi-disciplinary International Cooperative Programme on Integrated Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Ecosystems (ICPIM) is the second most widespread forest programme. Research highlights: To fully understand biochemical cycles in forest ecosystems, long-term monitoring is needed. Hence, a network of “Supersites”, is proposed. The application of the above infrastructure can be an effective way to attain a better integration of research and monitoring networks at forest sites in Europe
A meta-database comparison from various European research networks dedicated to forests sites
Danielewska, A. ; Clarke, N. ; Olejnik, J. ; Hansen, K. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2013
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry 6 (2013). - ISSN 1971-7458 - p. 1 - 9.
nitrogen deposition - terrestrial ecosystems - anthropogenic sources - air-pollutants - climate-change - united-states - heavy-metals - carbon - ozone - pollution
Of a wide variety of international forest research and monitoring networks, several networks are dedicated to the effects of climate change on forests, while the effects of anthropogenic pollutants on forests have been a major area for both monitoring and research for decades. The large amounts of data already obtained within existing monitoring programmes and large-scale international projects can be used to increase understanding of the state and potential of forest mitigation and adaptation to climate change in a polluted environment, and a major challenge now is to evaluate and integrate the presently available databases. We present a meta-database with the main goal to highlight available data and integrate the information about research and monitoring of selected European Research and Monitoring Networks (ERMNs). Depending on the selected ERMNs, the list of variables and the measurement units differ widely in the databases. As a result, activities related to the identification, evaluation and integration of the presently available databases are important for the scientific community. Furthermore, and equally important, the recognition of current knowledge gaps and future needed research is made easier. This analysis suggests that: ground-level ozone is under-investigated, although it is one of the pollutants of greatest concern to forests; in addition to CO2, long-term other greenhouse gasses (GHG) flux measurements should be carried out; there is still a need of improving links between monitoring of atmospheric changes and impacts on forests; research-oriented manipulative experiments in the forests are missing.
How well do ITS rDNA sequences differentiate species of true morels (Morchella)?
Du, X.H. ; Zhao, Q. ; Yang, Z.L. ; Hansen, K. ; Taskin, H. ; Büyükalaca, S. ; Dewsbury, D. ; Moncalvo, J.M. ; Douhan, G.W. ; Robert, V.A.R.G. ; Crous, P.W. ; Rehner, S.A. ; Rooney, A.P. ; Sink, S. ; O’Donnell, K. - \ 2012
Mycologia 104 (2012)6. - ISSN 0027-5514 - p. 1351 - 1368.
dna-sequences - phylogenetic-relationships - intragenomic variation - kingdom fungi - ribosomal dna - diversity - fusarium - identification - databases - recognition
Arguably more mycophiles hunt true morels (Morchella) during their brief fruiting season each spring in the northern hemisphere than any other wild edible fungus. Concerns about overharvesting by individual collectors and commercial enterprises make it essential that science-based management practices and conservation policies are developed to ensure the sustainability of commercial harvests and to protect and preserve morel species diversity. Therefore, the primary objectives of the present study were to: (i) investigate the utility of the ITS rDNA locus for identifying Morchella species, using phylogenetic species previously inferred from multilocus DNA sequence data as a reference; and (ii) clarify insufficiently identified sequences and determine whether the named sequences in GenBank were identified correctly. To this end, we generated 553 Morchella ITS rDNA sequences and downloaded 312 additional ones generated by other researchers from GenBank using emerencia and analyzed them phylogenetically. Three major findings emerged: (i) ITS rDNA sequences were useful in identifying 48/62 (77.4%) of the known phylospecies; however, they failed to identify 12 of the 22 species within the species-rich Elata Subclade and two closely related species in the Esculenta Clade; (ii) at least 66% of the named Morchella sequences in GenBank are misidentified; and (iii) ITS rDNA sequences of up to six putatively novel Morchella species were represented in GenBank. Recognizing the need for a dedicated Web-accessible reference database to facilitate the rapid identification of known and novel species, we constructed Morchella MLST (, which can be queried with ITS rDNA sequences and those of the four other genes used in our prior multilocus molecular systematic studies of this charismatic genus.
Water balance in afforestation chronosequences of common oak and Norway spruce on former arable land in Denmark and southern Sweden
Rosenqvist, L. ; Hansen, K. ; Vesterdal, L. ; Salm, C. van der - \ 2010
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150 (2010)2. - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 196 - 207.
forest - soil - transpiration - interception - evaporation - stands - beech - model - conductance - catchment
Precipitation, throughfall and soil moisture were measured, and interception, transpiration and water recharge were estimated in four afforestation chronosequences on former arable land at two Danish locations (Vestskoven and Gejlvang) and at one southern Swedish location (Tonnersjoheden). Afforestation was performed using Norway spruce (Picea abies (Karst.) L) and common oak (Quercus robur L.) at Vestskoven and only Norway spruce at Gejlvang and Tonnersjoheden. Four to five stands of different ages (5-92 years) were studied in each of these chronosequences. Hydrological fluxes were calculated using the soil hydrological model SWAP. Throughfall flux and soil water content were used for calibration of the model. The simulated water recharge decreased with increased stand age within 30-40 years of afforestation. This was mainly due to increased interception evaporation with age. The annual water recharge was higher below oak stands (149-192 mm yr(-1)) than below spruce stands (107-191 mm yr(-1)) of similar age. The relative water recharge was also considerably higher from the sandy glaciofluvial soils at Gejlvang and Tonnersjoheden than from the sandy loamy till soils at Vestskoven.
The Ascomycota tree of life: a phylum-wide phylogeny clarifies the origin and evolution of fundamental reproductive and ecological traits
Schoch, C.L. ; Sung, G.H. ; López-Giráldez, F. ; Townsend, J.P. ; Miadlikowska, J. ; Hofstetter, V. ; Robbertse, B. ; Brandon Matheny, P. ; Kauff, F. ; Wang, Z. ; Gueidan, C. ; Andrie, R.M. ; Trippe, K. ; Ciufetti, L.M. ; Wynns, A. ; Fraker, E. ; Hodkinson, B.P. ; Bonito, G. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Arzanlou, M. ; Hoog, G.S. de; Crous, P.W. ; Hewitt, D. ; Pfister, D.H. ; Peterson, K. ; Gryzenhout, M. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Aptroot, A. ; Suh, S.O. ; Blackwell, M. ; Hillis, D.M. ; Griffith, G.W. ; Castlebury, L.A. ; Rossman, A.Y. ; Lumbsch, H.T. ; Lücking, R. ; Büdel, B. ; Rauhut, A. ; Diederich, P. ; Ertz, D. ; Geiser, D.M. ; Hosaka, K. ; Inderbitzin, P. ; Kohlmeyer, J. ; Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, B. ; Mostert, L. ; O'Donnell, K. ; Sipman, H. ; Rogers, J.D. ; Shoemaker, R.A. ; Sugiyama, J. ; Summerbell, R.C. ; Untereiner, W. ; Johnston, P.R. ; Stenroos, S. ; Zuccaro, A. ; Dyer, P.S. ; Crittenden, P.D. ; Cole, M.S. ; Hansen, K. ; Trappe, J.M. ; Yahr, R. ; Lutzoni, F. ; Spatafora, J.W. - \ 2009
Systematic Biology 58 (2009)2. - ISSN 1063-5157 - p. 224 - 239.
rna-polymerase-ii - multiple sequence alignment - fungal lineages - cleistothecial fungi - classification - subunit - pezizomycotina - divergence - morphology - eukaryotes
We present a 6-gene, 420-species maximum-likelihood phylogeny of Ascomycota, the largest phylum of Fungi. This analysis is the most taxonomically complete to date with species sampled from all 15 currently circumscribed classes. A number of superclass-level nodes that have previously evaded resolution and were unnamed in classifications of the Fungi are resolved for the first time. Based on the 6-gene phylogeny we conducted a phylogenetic informativeness analysis of all 6 genes and a series of ancestral character state reconstructions that focused on morphology of sporocarps, ascus dehiscence, and evolution of nutritional modes and ecologies. A gene-by-gene assessment of phylogenetic informativeness yielded higher levels of informativeness for protein genes (RPB1, RPB2, and TEF1) as compared with the ribosomal genes, which have been the standard bearer in fungal systematics. Our reconstruction of sporocarp characters is consistent with 2 origins for multicellular sexual reproductive structures in Ascomycota, once in the common ancestor of Pezizomycotina and once in the common ancestor of Neolectomycetes. This first report of dual origins of ascomycete sporocarps highlights the complicated nature of assessing homology of morphological traits across Fungi. Furthermore, ancestral reconstruction supports an open sporocarp with an exposed hymenium (apothecium) as the primitive morphology for Pezizomycotina with multiple derivations of the partially (perithecia) or completely enclosed (cleistothecia) sporocarps. Ascus dehiscence is most informative at the class level within Pezizomycotina with most superclass nodes reconstructed equivocally. Character-state reconstructions support a terrestrial, saprobic ecology as ancestral. In contrast to previous studies, these analyses support multiple origins of lichenization events with the loss of lichenization as less frequent and limited to terminal, closely related species.
The Living Rainforest Sustainable Greenhouses
Bot, G.P.A. ; Zwart, H.F. de; Hansen, K. ; Logan, A. ; Witte Groenholland, H. - \ 2008
Acta Horticulturae 2008 (2008)801. - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 765 - 722.
The Living Rainforest ( is an educational charity that uses rainforest ecology as a metaphor for communicating general sustainability issues to the public. Its greenhouses and office buildings are to be renovated using the most sustainable methods currently available. This will be realised through construction of a high insulating greenhouse covering with a k-value of less than 2 Wm-2K-1, passive seasonal storage of excess summer solar energy in the ground by a ground source heat exchanger and exploitation of this low grade solar energy for heating in winter by a heat pump. In winter the heat pump will produce cold water to cool the ground allowing a passive cooling function in summer via the GSHE. It will be demonstrated that a GSHE is an alternative for an open aquifer in regions with no aquifer availability. The heat pump will deliver the heating baseload, the peak load will be delivered by a biomass boiler, fired with locally-sourced low-cost wood chips. It is expected that the energy saving will be about 75%, resulting in a major cost reduction. The low k-value of the covering is linked to a light transmission of 75 %. This is high enough for the demands of the vegetation in The Living Rainforest. Because the inner greenhouse climate demands are comparable to that of ornamentals, the results will be applicable to commercial ornamental production. In future low k-value coverings will also be available with high light transmission, allowing wider application of the results. This paper focuses on the correlation between k-value, light transmission and energy demand in order to investigate the trade-off between light transmittance (a major energy gain) and heat loss. The effects of these design parameters on storage and harvesting capacity are also considered but appear to have a low sensitivity. The renovated greenhouse site at The Living Rainforest will show that new greenhouses and ecology can be linked to sustainability and this will be communicated and demonstrated to the public.
Guidelines for planning afforestation of former arable land
Hansen, K. ; Vesterdal, L. ; Muys, B. ; Gilliams, S. ; Rosenqvist, L. ; Salm, C. van der; Elemans, M. ; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C. ; Gundersen, P. ; Johansson, M.B. ; Orshoven, J. van; Heil, G.W. ; Kros, H. ; Bleeker, A. ; Deursen, W. van; Stendahl, J. - \ 2007
In: Environmental Effects of Afforestation in North-Western Europe / Heil, G.W., Muys, B., Hansen, K., Dordrecht : Springer (Plant and Vegetation 1) - ISBN 9781402045677 - p. 249 - 291.
Environmental Effects of Afforestation in North-Western Europe
Vesterdal, L. ; Rosenqvist, L. ; Salm, C. van der; Hansen, K. ; Groenenberg, J.E. ; Johansson, M.B. - \ 2007
In: Environmental Effects of Afforestation in North-Western Europe / Heil, G.W., Muys, B., Hansen, K., Dordrecht : Springer (Plant and Vegetation 1) - ISBN 9781402045677 - p. 19 - 51.
Nitrogen deposition and nitrate leaching following afforestation: Experiences from oak and Norway spruce chronosequences in Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands.
Rosenqvist, L. ; Hansen, K. ; Vesterdal, L. ; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C. ; Salm, C. van der; Bleeker, A. ; Johansson, M. - \ 2007
In: Environmental Effects of Afforestation in North-Western Europe / Heil, G.W., Muys, B., Hansen, K., Dordrecht : Springer (Plant and Vegetation 1) - ISBN 9781402045677 - p. 79 - 108.
Interception and water recharge following afforestation: Experiences from oak and Norway spruce chronosequences in Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands.
Salm, C. van der; Rosenqvist, L. ; Vesterdal, L. ; Hansen, K. ; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C. ; Bleeker, A. ; Wieggers, R. ; Toorn, A. van den - \ 2007
In: Environmental Effects of Afforestation in North-Western Europe. Dordrecht : Springer (Plant and Vegetation 1) - ISBN 9781402045677 - p. 53 - 77.
The living rainforest sustainable greenhouses
Bot, G.P.A. ; Hansen, K. ; Logan, A. ; Zwart, H.F. de - \ 2007
Reconstructing the early evolution of the fungi using a six gene phylogeny
James, T.Y. ; Kauff, F. ; Schoch, C.L. ; Matheny, P.B. ; Hofstetter, V. ; Cox, C.J. ; Celio, G. ; Gueidan, C. ; Fraker, E. ; Miadlikowska, J. ; Lumbsch, H.T. ; Rauhut, A. ; Reeb, V. ; Arnold, A.E. ; Amtoft, A. ; Stajich, J.E. ; Hosaka, K. ; Sung, G.H. ; Johnson, D. ; O'Rourke, B. ; Binder, M. ; Curtis, J.M. ; Slot, J.C. ; Wang, Z. ; Wilson, A.W. ; Schüßler, A. ; Longcore, J.E. ; O'Donnell, K. ; Mozley-Standridge, S. ; Porter, D. ; Letcher, P.M. ; Powell, M.J. ; Taylor, J.W. ; White, M.M. ; Griffith, G.W. ; Davies, D.R. ; Sugiyama, J. ; Rossman, A.Y. ; Rogers, J.D. ; Pfister, D.H. ; Hewitt, D. ; Hansen, K. ; Hambleton, S. ; Shoemaker, R.A. ; Kohlmeyer, J. ; Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, B. ; Spotts, R.A. ; Serdani, M. ; Crous, P.W. ; Hughes, K.W. ; Matsuura, K. ; Langer, E. ; Langer, G. ; Untereiner, W.A. ; Lücking, R. ; Büdel, B. ; Geiser, D.M. ; Aptroot, A. ; Diederich, P. ; Schmitt, I. ; Schultz, M. ; Yahr, R. ; Hibbett, D.S. ; Lutzoni, F. ; McLaughlin, D.J. ; Spatafora, J.W. ; Vilgalys, R. - \ 2006
Nature 443 (2006)7113. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 818 - 822.
arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi - molecular phylogeny - maximum-likelihood - land plants - tree - microsporidia - sequences - animals - chytridiomycota - glomeromycota
The ancestors of fungi are believed to be simple aquatic forms with flagellated spores, similar to members of the extant phylum Chytridiomycota (chytrids). Current classifications assume that chytrids form an early-diverging clade within the kingdom Fungi and imply a single loss of the spore flagellum, leading to the diversification of terrestrial fungi. Here we develop phylogenetic hypotheses for Fungi using data from six gene regions and nearly 200 species. Our results indicate that there may have been at least four independent losses of the flagellum in the kingdom Fungi. These losses of swimming spores coincided with the evolution of new mechanisms of spore dispersal, such as aerial dispersal in mycelial groups and polar tube eversion in the microsporidia (unicellular forms that lack mitochondria). The enigmatic microsporidia seem to be derived from an endoparasitic chytrid ancestor similar to Rozella allomycis, on the earliest diverging branch of the fungal phylogenetic tree
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