- P.C. Aerts (1)
- J.A.M. Arendonk van (4)
- D. Bakker (1)
- H.M.G. Beers-Schreurs van (6)
- L. Benedictus (2)
- M. Berkeveld (9)
- J.E. Bolhuis (1)
- W. Eden van (1)
- P. Eldik van (2)
- G.J. Essen van (3)
- P. Haard van (1)
- C.J.C. Haas de (1)
- D.A.C. Heesterbeek (1)
- S.W.M. Hendriksen (3)
- H.C.M. Heuven (6)
- J. Hoeboer (2)
- A. Hoek van (1)
- K.J.E. Hulzen van (5)
- G. Jong de (1)
- I. Joosten (1)
- B. Kemp (1)
- K.P.M. Kessel van (1)
- D. Klinkenberg (1)
- A.P. Koets (18)
- K.J. Koymans (1)
- N. Kuijken (1)
- F.H.J. Kuijpers (1)
- M. Langelaar (1)
- P. Langendijk (9)
- A. Nes van (1)
- M. Nielen (5)
- R. Nijland (1)
- V.P.M.G. Rutten (1)
- V. Rutten (1)
- W.J. Santema (1)
- G.C.B. Schopen (1)
- C. Schrooten (1)
- N.M. Soede (1)
- J.A.G. Strijp van (1)
- M.A.M. Taverne (9)
- J.H.M. Verheijden (9)
- M. Vrieling (1)
- P.T.J. Willemsen (1)
- Journal of Animal Science (4)
- Journal of Dairy Science (4)
- Animal Reproduction Science (1)
- Livestock Science (1)
- Veterinary Microbiology (1)
Bovine Staphylococcus aureus secretes the leukocidin LukMF' to kill migrating neutrophils through CCR1
Vrieling, M. ; Koymans, K.J. ; Heesterbeek, D.A.C. ; Aerts, P.C. ; Rutten, V.P.M.G. ; Haas, C.J.C. de; Kessel, K.P.M. van; Koets, A.P. ; Nijland, R. ; Strijp, J.A.G. van - \ 2015
mBio 6 (2015)3. - ISSN 2150-7511 - 9 p.
Although Staphylococcus aureus is best known for infecting humans, bovine-specific strains are a major cause of mastitis in dairy cattle. The bicomponent leukocidin LukMF′, exclusively harbored by S. aureus of ruminant origin, is a virulence factor associated with bovine infections. In this study, the molecular basis of the host specificity of LukMF′ is elucidated by identification of chemokine receptor CCR1 as its target. Bovine neutrophils, the major effector cells in the defense against staphylococci, express significant cell surface levels of CCR1, whereas human neutrophils do not. This causes the particular susceptibility of bovine neutrophils to pore formation induced by LukMF′. Bovine S. aureus strains produce high levels of LukMF′ in vitro. In culture supernatant of the mastitis field isolate S1444, LukMF′ was the most important cytotoxic agent for bovine neutrophils. In a fibrin gel matrix, the effects of the in situ secreted toxins on neutrophils migrating toward S. aureus were visualized. Under these physiological ex vivo conditions, bovine S. aureus S1444 efficiently killed approaching neutrophils at a distance through secretion of LukMF′. Altogether, our findings illustrate the coevolution of pathogen and host, provide new targets for therapeutic and vaccine approaches to treat staphylococcal diseases in the cow, and emphasize the importance of staphylococcal toxins in general.
The effect of genetic selection for Johne's disease resistance n dairy cattle: Results of a genetic-epidemiological model
Hulzen, K.J.E. van; Koets, A.P. ; Nielen, M. ; Heuven, H.C.M. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Klinkenberg, D. - \ 2014
Journal of Dairy Science 97 (2014)3. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1762 - 1773.
avium subspecies paratuberculosis - decision-analysis model - antibody-response - control program - fecal culture - holstein cows - mycobacterium - herd - infection - heritability
The objective of this study was to model genetic selection for Johne’s disease resistance and to study the effect of different selection strategies on the prevalence in the dairy cattle population. In the Netherlands, a certification-and-surveillance program is in use to reduce prevalence and presence of sources of infection in milk by culling ELISA-positive dairy cows in infected herds. To investigate the additional genetic effect of this program, a genetic-epidemiological model was developed to assess the effect of selection of cows that test negative for Johne’s disease (dam selection). The genetic effect of selection at the sire level was also considered (sire selection), assuming selection of 80% of sires producing the most resistant offspring based on their breeding values, as well as the combined effect. Parameters assumed to be affected by genetic selection were the length of the latent period, susceptibility (i.e., the number of infectious doses needed to become infected), or the length of susceptible period as a calf. The effect of selection was measured by the time in years required to eliminate infection. Sensitivity analysis was performed for heritability, accuracy of selection, and intensity of selection. For dam selection, responses to selection were small, requiring 379 to 702 yr for elimination. For sire selection, responses were much larger, although elimination still required 147 to 223 yr. The response to selection was largest if genetic selection affected the length of the susceptible period, followed by the susceptibility, and finally the length of the latent period. Genetic selection for Johne’s disease resistance by certification and surveillance is too slow for practical purpose, but that selection on the sire level is able to contribute to the control of Johne’s disease in the long run.
Heritable and non-heritable genetic effects on retained placenta in Meuse-Rhine-Yssel cattle
Benedictus, L. ; Koets, A.P. ; Kuijpers, F.H.J. ; Joosten, I. ; Eldik, P. van; Heuven, H.C.M. - \ 2013
Animal Reproduction Science 137 (2013)1-2. - ISSN 0378-4320 - p. 1 - 7.
norwegian red cows - major histocompatibility complex - class-i compatibility - dairy-cattle - milk-yield - inbreeding depression - brown swiss - fertility - parameters - disorders
Failure of the timely expulsion of the fetal membranes, called retained placenta, leads to reduced fertility, increased veterinary costs and reduced milk yields. The objectives of this study were to concurrently look at the heritable and non-heritable genetic effects on retained placenta and test the hypothesis that a greater coefficient of relationship between dam and calf increases the risk of retained placenta in the dam. The average incidence of retained placenta in 43,661 calvings of Meuse-Rhine-Yssel cattle was 4.5%, ranging from 0% to 29.6% among half-sib groups. The average pedigree based relationship between the sire and the maternal grandsire was 0.05 and ranged from 0 to 1.04. Using a sire-maternal grandsire model the heritability was estimated at 0.22 (SEM = 0.07) which is comparable with estimates for other dual purpose breeds. The coefficient of relationship between the sire and the maternal grandsire had an effect on retained placenta. The coefficient of relationship between the sire and the maternal grandsire was used as a proxy for the coefficient of relationship between dam and calf, which is correlated with the probability of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I compatibility between dam and calf. MHC class I compatibility is an important risk factor for retained placenta. Although the MHC class I haplotype is genetically determined, MHC class I compatibility is not heritable. This study shows that selection against retained placenta is possible and indicates that preventing the mating of related parents may play a role in the prevention of retained placenta.
|Retained placenta in MRIJ cattle is affected by heritable and non-heritable factors
Benedictus, L. ; Koets, A.P. ; Eldik, P. van; Heuven, H.C.M. - \ 2012
Genetic variation for infection status as determined by a specific antibody response against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in milk of Dutch dairy goats
Hulzen, K.J.E. van; Koets, A.P. ; Nielen, M. ; Hoeboer, J. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van - \ 2012
Journal of Dairy Science 95 (2012)10. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 6145 - 6151.
johnes-disease - holstein cows - fecal culture - heritability - susceptibility - elisa
Classical control strategies based on management restrictions to reduce transmission, culling of infected goats, and vaccination have not been able to eradicate Johne’s disease from infected herds. Selective breeding for less susceptibility to disease may be a useful additional tool to contribute to control of the disease. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic variation and heritability for infection status as determined by a specific antibody response against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in milk of Dutch dairy goats. Milk samples from 950 goats were tested for antibodies specific to Johne’s disease by ELISA on 5 consecutive test days, with a time interval of around 3 mo. Test results were coded as infected or not infected according to the instructions of the manufacturer. Heritability of infection status was estimated for 3 data sets to determine the effect of repeated sampling: only test results obtained on the first test day (first-test); the maximum test result of each animal obtained on 1 of the 5 test days (max-test); and all test results per animal, with a maximum of 5 consecutive samplings (all-test). Data sets first-test and max-test were analyzed with a sire model with fixed effects for year of birth and stage of lactation, and random effects for sire and error. For data set all-test, an additional permanent environment effect was included in the model. The estimated heritability on the underlying scale ranged from 0.12 in data set first-test, to 0.09 in data set max-test, to 0.07 in data set all-test.
Genome-wide association study to identify chromosomal regions associated with antibody response to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in milk of Dutch Holstein-Friesians
Hulzen, K.J.E. van; Schopen, G.C.B. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Nielen, M. ; Koets, A.P. ; Schrooten, C. ; Heuven, H.C.M. - \ 2012
Journal of Dairy Science 95 (2012)5. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 2740 - 2748.
single nucleotide polymorphisms - estimated breeding values - quantitative trait loci - genetic-variation - johnes-disease - linkage disequilibrium - short-communication - us holsteins - infection - cattle
Heritability of susceptibility to Johne's disease in cattle has been shown to vary from 0.041 to 0.159. Although the presence of genetic variation involved in susceptibility to Johne's disease has been demonstrated, the understanding of genes contributing to the genetic variance is far from complete. The objective of this study was to contribute to further understanding of genetic variation involved in susceptibility to Johne's disease by identifying associated chromosomal regions using a genome-wide association approach. Log-transformed ELISA test results of 265,290 individual Holstein-Friesian cows from 3,927 herds from the Netherlands were analyzed to obtain sire estimated breeding values for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP)-specific antibody response in milk using a sire-maternal grandsire model with fixed effects for parity, year of birth, lactation stage, and herd; a covariate for milk yield on test day; and random effects for sire, maternal grandsire, and error. For 192 sires with estimated breeding values with a minimum reliability of 70%, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing was conducted by a multiple SNP analysis with a random polygenic effect fitting 37,869 SNP simultaneously. Five SNP associated with MAP-specific antibody response in milk were identified distributed over 4 chromosomal regions (chromosome 4, 15, 18, and 28). Thirteen putative SNP associated with MAP-specific antibody response in milk were identified distributed over 10 chromosomes (chromosome 4, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 26, 27, and 29). This knowledge contributes to the current understanding of genetic variation involved in Johne's disease susceptibility and facilitates control of Johne's disease and improvement of health status by breeding.
Different Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis MIRU-VNTR patterns coexist within cattle herds
Hulzen, K.J.E. van; Heuven, H.C.M. ; Nielen, M. ; Hoeboer, J. ; Santema, W.J. ; Koets, A.P. - \ 2011
Veterinary Microbiology 148 (2011)2-4. - ISSN 0378-1135 - p. 419 - 424.
number tandem-repeat - genetic diversity - genome - tuberculosis - population - evolution - strains - complex - element - is1245
A better understanding of the biodiversity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) offers more insight in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis and therefore may contribute to the control of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity in bovine MAP isolates using PCR-based methods detecting genetic elements called Variable-Number Tandem Repeats (VNTRs) and Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units (MIRUs) to determine if multiple MAP strains can coexist on farms with endemic MAP infection. For 52 temporal isolates originating from infected cattle from 32 commercial dairy herds with known trading history, MIRU–VNTR analysis was applied at 10 loci of which six showed variation. Within the group of 52 isolates, 17 different MIRU–VNTR patterns were detected. One MIRU–VNTR pattern was found in 29 isolates, one pattern in four isolates, one pattern in three isolates, two times one MIRU–VNTR pattern was found occurring in two isolates, and 12 patterns were found only once. Eleven herds provided multiple isolates. In five herds a single MIRU–VNTR pattern was detected among multiple isolates whereas in six herds more than one pattern was found. This study confirms that between dairy farms as well as within dairy farms, infected animals shed MAP with different MIRU–VNTR patterns. Analysis of trading history and age within herds indicated that cows born within the same birth cohort can be infected with MAP strains exhibiting variations in the number of MIRU–VNTR repeats. These data indicate that such multiple genotypes of MAP can coexist within one herd.
Effect of herd prevalence on heritability estimates of antibody response to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis
Hulzen, K.J.E. van; Nielen, M. ; Koets, A.P. ; Jong, G. de; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Heuven, H.C.M. - \ 2011
Journal of Dairy Science 94 (2011)2. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 992 - 997.
genetic-variation - immune-responses - cattle - infection - model - milk - resistance - selection - disease - elisa
Worldwide, classical control strategies based on hygiene and culling of infected animals have been implemented to eradicate Johne's disease. Breeding for disease resistance may be a useful additional tool to control the disease. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for the presence of a Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis specific antibody response in milk of Dutch Holstein-Friesian cows using subsets of data based on within-herd test prevalence. The analyzed data set consisted of milk samples of 684,364 animals from 12,077 herds collected during the routine milk production scheme. Milk samples were tested for antibodies specific for Johne's disease by an ELISA test. Heritability estimates were calculated for 4 different subsets of data to determine the sensitivity of heritability for within-herd test prevalence. Results expressed as percentage of the sample to positive ratio were analyzed with a sire-maternal grandsire model with fixed effects for parity, year of birth, lactation stage, and herd; a covariate for milk yield at test day; and random effects for sire, maternal grandsire, and error. The estimated heritability ranged from 0.031 for the complete data set to 0.097 for herds with a test prevalence of at least 10%. Cross-validation was applied to determine which of the subsets of data produced the most accurate estimated breeding values. Results showed that for genetic selection to contribute to disease control, breeding values were estimated most accurately from herds with at least 2 animals that tested positive. In this subset the heritability was 0.041.
Improving adaptation to weaning: Effect of intermittent suckling regimens on piglet feed intake, growth, and gut characteristics
Berkeveld, M. ; Langendijk, P. ; Soede, N.M. ; Kemp, B. ; Taverne, M.A.M. ; Verheijden, J.H.M. ; Kuijken, N. ; Koets, A.P. - \ 2009
Journal of Animal Science 87 (2009)10. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 3156 - 3166.
small-intestine - crypt depth - extended lactation - villous height - pigs - performance - citrulline - period
Daily separation of sows and piglets during lactation, intermittent suckling (IS), improves feed intake and postweaning adaptation in piglets. The aim of the current study was to determine how, in piglets that have been subjected to IS, age at weaning and the duration of the preceding IS period contribute to postweaning adaptation through effects on feed intake, growth, and gut characteristics. All piglets had ad libitum access to creep feed from d 7. Litters were subjected to conventional weaning (CW) or to 1 of 3 IS regimens. In CW, litters (n = 29) had continuous access to the sow until weaning (d 26, d 0 = farrowing). During IS, litters had access to the sow between 1600 and 0600 h. Litters in the IS treatments were subjected to IS 1) from d 19 onward and weaned at d 26 (IS19–7D, n = 33), 2) from d 19 onward and weaned at d 33 (IS19–14D, n = 28), or 3) from d 26 onward and weaned at d 33 (IS26–7D, n = 33). The IS19–7D regimen resulted in a relative growth check within the first 2 d after weaning similar to CW litters (72 ± 13 and 90 ± 7%, respectively), but in a greater piglet growth (P = 0.014) and feed intake (P = 0.001) between d 2 and 7 postweaning. Moreover, IS19–7D was not associated with a (further) reduction in villus height as observed at d 2 postweaning in CW litters. In IS piglets weaned after an extended lactation (d 33), a markedly smaller weaning-associated relative growth check was observed shortly postweaning (11 ± 18 and 32 ± 19% for IS19–14D and IS26–7D litters, respectively). In these litters, feed intake and growth within the first 2 d after weaning were slightly greater when piglets were subjected to IS for 2 wk (IS19–14D) rather than for 1 wk (IS26–7D; P = 0.032 and P = 0.037 for feed intake and growth, respectively). Irrespective of duration of IS, weaning at d 33 with IS was not associated with a reduction in villus height. Irrespective of treatment, plasma citrulline concentrations were reduced at d 2 and 8 postweaning compared with the values at weaning (P 0.01). No correlation was observed between postweaning plasma citrulline concentrations and postweaning small intestinal villus height. This study indicates that 1 wk of IS before weaning at d 26 of lactation improves feed intake and growth between d 2 and 7 postweaning and does not result in a reduction of villus height as observed in CW piglets, although it did not prevent a profound growth check shortly after weaning. However, combining 1 wk of IS with an extended lactation improved postweaning adaptation markedly in terms of growth, feed intake, and gut characteristics. Increasing the duration of IS from 1 to 2 wk slightly improved growth and feed intake shortly after weaning, but the contribution to postweaning adaptation seemed to be relatively small compared with extending lactation
Evidence for distinct host response patterns in cows experimentally infected with M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis
Koets, A.P. ; Langelaar, M. ; Hoek, A. van; Bakker, D. ; Willemsen, P.T.J. ; Eden, W. van; Rutten, V. - \ 2008
Citrulline and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein: Longitudinal markers of postweaning small intestinal function in pigs?
Berkeveld, M. ; Langendijk, P. ; Verheijden, J.H.M. ; Taverne, M.A.M. ; Nes, A. van; Haard, P. van; Koets, A.P. - \ 2008
Journal of Animal Science 86 (2008)12. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 3440 - 3449.
enhanced expression - plasma citrulline - enterocyte mass - crypt depth - weaned pigs - feed-intake - piglets - glutamine - absorption - morphology
The objective of the current study was to investigate whether plasma citrulline or intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) concentrations might be used as longitudinal markers for small intestinal function in piglets after weaning. Plasma citrulline and I-FABP concentrations were measured longitudinally in weaned and unweaned piglets, and related to intestinal absorption values (i.e., plasma mannitol and 3-xylose concentrations in a sugar absorption test). Within each litter (n = 10), 2 piglets with a close-to-litter-average BW were selected. At 20.8 ± 0.4 d of age, the selected piglets per litter were either weaned conventionally (CW) or remained with the sow (UNW). One day before, and 0.5, 2, 4, and 7 d after weaning of the CW piglets, the selected piglets of both groups were subjected to a sugar absorption test. After a 2-h fast, piglets were administered an oral dose of 2 mL/kg of sugar solution, containing 50 mg/kg of mannitol and 100 mg/kg of 3-xylose. One hour after administration, a blood sample was collected from a jugular vein for determination of plasma I-FABP, citrulline, mannitol, and 3-xylose concentrations. Plasma I-FABP concentration showed great variation within treatments, and no difference was observed in plasma I-FABP concentrations between the CW and UNW treatments (P = 0.63). The absorption of 3-xylose was not different between treatments (P = 0.83). Mannitol absorption, however, was less in the weaned CW piglets compared with the UNW piglets (P = 0.003), with the nadir on d 4 postweaning. Weaning also reduced plasma citrulline concentrations in the CW treatment compared with the UNW treatment (P <0.001). On d 4 and 7 postweaning, plasma citrulline concentrations of CW piglets were less (P <0.001 and P = 0.0013) than preweaning values. Furthermore, in the CW treatment, plasma citrulline concentrations correlated with plasma mannitol concentrations at d 4 postweaning (r = 0.89, P = 0.008) and overall (r = 0.76, P = 0.001). Based on these results, plasma citrulline concentration seems to be a possible marker for monitoring intestinal function in pigs after weaning.
Measuring intestinal blood flow in group-housed weaner pigs using Physiogear TM I: A pilot study
Berkeveld, M. ; Hendriksen, S.W.M. ; Beers-Schreurs, H.M.G. van; Koets, A.P. ; Langendijk, P. ; Essen, G.J. van; Taverne, M.A.M. ; Verheijden, J.H.M. - \ 2007
Livestock Science 108 (2007)1-3. - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 159 - 162.
The objective of this study was to determine whether intestinal blood flow can be measured adequately in group-housed animals using the recently developed Physiogear (TM) I wireless flowmeter. We used the weaner pig as one of many possible animal models. Four 7-kg piglets were instrumented with a 3-mm flowprobe around the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and SMA flow was measured pre- and post-weaning. During measurements, behavior was recorded. The piglets did not show any abnormal behavior and were not restrained by the flowmeter. Severe reductions (> 75%) in SMA flow coincided with nursing (pre-weaning) and aggressive behavior (post-weaning) and were only short-lived. Our results demonstrate that the Physiogear (TM) I flowmeter can be used to measure flow in group-housed animals without any human contact, providing the opportunity to relate flow measurements to undisturbed animal behavior. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Postweaning growth check in pigs is markedly reduced by intermittent suckling and extended lactation
Berkeveld, M. ; Langendijk, P. ; Beers-Schreurs, H.M.G. van; Koets, A.P. ; Taverne, M.A.M. ; Verheijden, J.H.M. - \ 2007
Journal of Animal Science 85 (2007)12. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 258 - 266.
feed-intake characteristics - digestive enzyme-activity - housed weanling pigs - early-weaned pig - small-intestine - boar exposure - crypt depth - performance - sows - consumption
The objective of this study was to determine whether intermittent suckling (IS) combined with an extended lactation can reduce postweaning growth check in pigs. Three weaning regimens [ conventional weaning (CW), IS with 6-h separation intervals (IS6), and IS with 12-h separation intervals (IS12)] were compared. In CW (n = 17 litters), litters had continuous access to the sow until weaning (d 21, d 0 = farrowing). In IS6 and IS12, litters were separated from the sow for 12 h/d, beginning at d 14 and lasting until weaning (d 41 to 45). Litters were with the sow from 1400 to 2000 and from 0200 to 0800 (IS6, n = 14) or between 2000 and 0800 (IS12, n = 14). Litter size was standardized within 2 d after farrowing by crossfostering, resulting in an average litter size of 10.9 +/- 1.8 piglets. Piglets had ad libitum access to creep feed from d 7 onward. One week after the onset of IS (d 20), creep feed intake was increased in litters from both IS groups compared with CW litters (P <0.05). Both IS groups consumed considerable amounts of creep feed before weaning (d 41 to 45). Total feed intake before weaning was greater (P = 0.004) in IS12 (3,808 +/- 469 g/ piglet) than in IS6 (2,717 +/- 404 g/ piglet). In comparison, CW litters consumed 18 +/- 9 g/ piglet before weaning (d 21). Irrespective of weaning regimen, total feed intake of litters before weaning was highly correlated with postweaning feed intake (P <0.001). Furthermore, in all treatment groups, total preweaning feed intake was correlated with postweaning growth (P <0.10). Irrespective of treatment, piglets suckling anterior teats grew faster than piglets suckling middle or posterior teats during the first 2 wk of lactation. Body weights at the end of the experiment (d 55) were similar among weaning regimens. Onset of IS induced a growth check in both IS groups (34% for IS12 and 22% for IS6). Only a mild growth check was observed after weaning of IS litters (14% for both IS groups). However, a serious growth check (98%) was observed after weaning of CW litters. Results of the current study indicate that IS stimulated feed intake during lactation, providing a more gradual transition to weaning. Because the IS6 regimen did not prevent the growth check after the onset of IS and is rather laborious, we suggest that IS12 might be preferable for a practical implementation of IS.
Intermittent suckling during an extended lactation period: Effects on piglet behavior
Berkeveld, M. ; Langendijk, P. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Koets, A.P. ; Verheijden, J.H.M. ; Taverne, M.A.M. - \ 2007
Journal of Animal Science 85 (2007)12. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 3415 - 3424.
ranging domestic pigs - post-weaning behavior - maternal-behavior - housing conditions - nursing frequency - milk-production - sows - growth - performance - litters
The objectives of the current study were to determine how intermittent suckling (IS) affects nursing behavior, litter activity, and general behavioral patterns during lactation, and whether IS during an extended lactation period results in behavioral patterns associated with piglet distress. Intermittent suckling was applied either with 6-h separation intervals (IS6) or with 12-h separation intervals (IS12) and was compared with the conventional treatment (CT). In the CT (n = 17 litters), sows were continuously present until weaning (d 21, d 0 = farrowing). In both IS6 and IS12, sows were separated from their litter for 12 h/d, beginning at d 14 and lasting until weaning (d 43 +/- 1 d). In IS6, litters (n = 14) and sows were separated from 0800 to 1400 and from 2000 to 0200; in IS12 litters (n = 14) and sows were separated between 0800 and 2000. In IS litters, the activity pattern over the 24-h cycle was markedly changed by IS; litter activity was lower (P <0.001) during sow absence and greater (P <0.001) during sow presence compared with the unweaned CT litters. Moreover, both total nursing frequency (P <0.00 1) and the percentage (P <0.002) of successful nursings were reduced by IS. Although total nursing frequency was greater in IS6 compared with IS12 (on d 21 and 28), no differences in the frequency of successful nursings existed between IS6 and IS12 from d 14 onward. Eating behavior was increased shortly after the onset of IS (d 17) in both IS6 (P = 0.059) and IS12 (P <0.001) compared with the unweaned CT litters. The IS12 litters showed more eating behavior compared with IS6 and their exploratory behavior increased in time (P <0.001), whereas IS6 showed more nursing behavior. Aggressive or manipulative behavior of both IS treatments was similar compared with the unweaned CT, and remained relatively unaltered with time in IS12 and IS6. Weaning in the CT resulted in more manipulative (P <0.001) and aggressive (P = 0.004) behavior compared with pre-weaning values. Intermittent suckling may contribute to adaptation to the postweaning state by stimulating eating behavior, without causing obvious behavioral distress.
Effect of weaning on intestinal blood flow : a pilot study
Berkeveld, M. ; Langendijk, P. ; Beers-Schreurs, H.M.G. van; Hendriksen, S.W.M. ; Essen, G.J. van; Koets, A.P. ; Taverne, M.A.M. ; Verheijden, J.H.M. - \ 2006
In: Proceedings of the 19th International Pig Veterinary Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark, 16-19 July 2006. - - p. 538 - 538.
|Effect of weaning on intestinal blood flow: a pilot study
Berkeveld, M. ; Beers-Schreurs, H.M.G. van; Langendijk, P. ; Hendriksen, S.W.M. ; Essen, G.J. van; Koets, A.P. ; Taverne, M.A.M. ; Verheijden, J.H.M. - \ 2006
Intermittent suckling prevents weaning induced growth check
Berkeveld, M. ; Langendijk, P. ; Beers-Schreurs, H.M.G. van; Koets, A.P. ; Taverne, M.A.M. ; Verheijden, J.H.M. - \ 2006
|Intermittent suckling prevents weaning induced growth check
Berkeveld, M. ; Langendijk, P. ; Beers-Schreurs, H.M.G. van; Koets, A.P. ; Taverne, M.A.M. ; Verheijden, J.H.M. - \ 2006