Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Changes in regional grain yield responses to chemical fertilizer use in china over the last 20 years
Wang, Xiaobin ; Cai, Dianxiong ; Grant, Cynthia ; Hoogmoed, Willem B. ; Oenema, Oene - \ 2018
Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 18 (2018)2. - ISSN 0718-9516 - p. 312 - 328.
Cropland - Fertilizer - Fertilizer-use efficiency - Grain yield - Soil productivity

A major challenge facing China is to meet the increasing food demand of its growing population in the face of decreasing arable land area, while sustaining or improving soil productivity and avoiding adverse environmental impacts from intensive agriculture. This study uses data from China Statistical Yearbooks to analyze trends in regional soil productivity and grain yields in the major grain-producing regions in North China (NC), Northeast China (NE), East China (EC), Central China (CC), and Southwest China (SW), associated with regional fertilizer use and annual climate variation in rainfall and mean temperature over the 20 years. During 1992-2012, the average fertilizer increase rates (in kg ha-1 year-1) were in the order of regions CC (6.6) > NC (4.8) > EC (2.4) > SW (2.1) > NE (1.3), while yield responses to fertilizer use (with regression model coefficients, in kg kg-1) were in the order: SW (-0.9) < CC (1.1) < NC (1.7) < EC (5.7) < NE (9.3), showing higher yield responses to fertilizer use for NE and EC than for other regions. The changes in regional grain yields also showed higher yield responses to soil-based productivity for NC, CC, and SW, or to annual climate variability for CC than for other regions, indicating that other factors (such as inherent soil productivity or annual climate variability could be more important than fertilizer in affecting yields. The strategies for regulating nutrient management are needed considerably based on regional indigenous soil nutrient supply under varying regional climate conditions.

Balanced N and C input recommendations for rain-fed maize production in northern China based on N balances and grain yields
Wang, Xiaobin ; Cai, Dianxiong ; Zhao, Quansheng ; Xie, Xiaohong ; Hoogmoed, Willem B. ; Oenema, Oene - \ 2018
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 98 (2018)3. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 872 - 883.
Carbon - Dryland - Maize - Nitrogen - Rain-fed farming

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess longer-term (1993-2009) effects of combined applications of fertiliser, maize stover, and cattle manure on maize yields, partial nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) balances, and water and N-use efficiencies, to guide N and C input recommendations for rain-fed maize production in northern China. RESULTS: The field trial, with three factors at five levels and 12 treatments, was conducted at Shouyang Dryland-Farming Experimental Station, Shanxi, China. Data analysis revealed higher N balances but lower C balances significantly occurred in a dry year than in a wet year. Positive N balances related to higher N inputs resulted in higher soil available N, even downward to deep layers with increasing N inputs, while positive C balances due to higher C inputs could be benefit to increase soil organic C. Based on partial N balances and grain yields, N and C inputs at ranges of 100kg N ha-1 and 1.9-2.9Mg C ha-1 could be recommended for target yields of 6.7-7.2Mg ha-1 in rain-fed maize production. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that N balances close to neutral be given priority to improving N-use efficiency, and more positive C balances also be important for sustaining target yields and soil fertility levels.

Soil quality after six years of paper mill industrial wastewater application
Almeida, Ivan Carlos Carreiro ; Fernandes, Raphael Bragança Alves ; Neves, Júlio César Lima ; Ruiz, Hugo Alberto ; Lima, Túlio Luís Borges de; Hoogmoed, Willem - \ 2017
Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo 41 (2017). - ISSN 0100-0683
Clay dispersion - Industrial effluent - Salinity - Wastewater disposal - Water reuse

The application of wastewater to irrigate soils may be an attractive option for paper mills, especially when the effluents can also provide nutrients to plants. Since there could be negative environmental effects, such activity must be preceded by a thorough evaluation of the consequences. The changes in soil quality of a Neossolo Flúvico Distrófico (Typic Udifluvent) were evaluated over a period of six years of irrigation with treated effluent from a wood pulp company. Although effluent application for six years did not affect soil resistance to penetration and soil hydraulic conductivity, it promoted a decrease in the mean size of aggregates and an increase in clay dispersion. Effluent application increased soil pH but did not change exchangeable Ca and Mg contents and organic carbon. After a full rotation of eucalyptus cultivation common in Brazil (six years), no negative effects in tree growth were found due to effluent irrigation. However, effluent addition caused higher values of Na adsorption ratio and intermediate electrical conductivity in the soil, which indicates a possible negative effect on soil quality if the application continues over a longer period. Therefore, a monitoring program should be carried out during subsequent crop rotations, and alternatives must be studied to obtain better effluent quality, such as adding Ca and Mg to the wastewater and using gypsum in the soil.

Effects of variation in rainfall on rainfed crop yields and water use in dryland farming areas in China
Wang, Xiaobin ; Cai, Diangxiong ; Wu, Huijin ; Hoogmoed, W.B. ; Oenema, O. - \ 2016
Arid Land Research and Management 30 (2016)1. - ISSN 1532-4982 - p. 1 - 24.
Dryland farming - Variation - Rainfall
Crop production in the dryland farming areas of northern China is constrained by low and variable rainfall. This article presents the analysis of the relationships between variations in rainfall and yields of winter wheat and spring maize. The analysis is based on data from both several short-term and our ongoing long-term field experiments in dryland farming research projects in Tunliu, Linfen, Shouyang, and Luoyang. Grain yields of wheat and maize ranged from 1,548 to 5,169 and from 2,612 to 8,789 kg ha-1 respectively, with differences up to above 200% (between dry and wet years). Wheat yields are sensitive to growing season rainfall but also correlated to water use (ET), whereas maize yields are sensitive to the critical time of water supply (especially June rainfall) but not correlated to ET. The ratio of grain yields to soil water at sowing is an important indicator, showing close relationships between yields and soil water-related ratio within the rainfed crops site. Comparison between the indices of water use efficiency (WUE) and precipitation use efficiency (PUE) suggests that the index WUE is more grain-related indicator than the PUE used for assessing rainfed crop water use by both maize and wheat. The index PUE should be used in caution, especially for wheat crops in dry years. Our results indicate that options to alleviate crop moisture stress must be tailored to the rainfall pattern. This holds especially for conservation tillage with response nutrient management practices that aim at enhancing water use efficiency.
Factors controlling regional grain yield in China over the last 20 years
wang, Xiaobin ; Cai, D.X. ; Grant, C. ; Hoogmoed, W.B. ; Oenema, O. - \ 2015
Agronomy for Sustainable Development 35 (2015)3. - ISSN 1774-0746 - p. 1127 - 1138.
Food production is highly dependent on regional yields of crops. Regional differences in grain yields could be due to fertilizer management and climate variability. Here, we analyze trends of grain yields in North China, Northeast China, East China, and Central and Southwest China from 1992 to 2012, using the Chinese statistical yearbooks. We estimate the major factors influencing yield by regression analysis. Results show that fertilizer indices were 40 % for Northeast China, 36 % for East China, 9 % for North China, and 6.8 % for Central and Southwest China. Soil indices were 67 % for Northeast China, 14 % for East China, 90 % for North China, and 6 % for Central and Southwest China. The indices of annual mean temperature were positive for Central and Southwest China (72 %) and East China (39 %), but negative for Northeast China (-15 %) and North China (-16 %). Soil factors explained 80 % of yield variation in North China. Annual mean temperature explained 80 % of yield variation in Central and Southwest China.
Integrated manure management to reduce environmental impact: II. Environmental impact assessment of strategies
Vries, J.W. de; Groenestein, C.M. ; Schroder, J.J. ; Hoogmoed, W.B. ; Sukkel, W. ; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2015
Agricultural Systems 138 (2015). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 88 - 99.
Manure management contributes to adverse environmental impacts through losses of nitrogen (N), phosphorus, and carbon (C). In this study, we aimed to assess the potential of newly designed strategies for integrated manure management (IS) to reduce environmental impact. An important aspect of the strategies was that they prevented pollution swapping. Life cycle assessment was used to compute climate change (CC), fossil fuel depletion (FFD), terrestrial acidification (TA), marine eutrophication (ME), particulate matter formation (PMF), N use efficiency (NUE), and phosphorus over application rate (POA), relative to the crop demand for N. We applied the IS to North West European practice (Ref) and included the Dutch current situation of progressive manure management (NL) to illustrate the potential of the IS to reduce environmental impact. Manure management in Ref included production and management of liquid and solid dairy cattle manure applied to maize and grass, and liquid pig manure applied to wheat. A Monte Carlo uncertainty simulation was done to assess the effect of variation in N and C losses and N uptake by crops on the comparison with Ref, IS, and NL. Results showed that the IS reduced all environmental impacts in all manure product and crop combinations and more than doubled the NUE (70% compared with maximum 33% in Ref). Main causes were: segregation of pig and dairy cattle urine and feces inside the housing system reduced methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) emissions; addition of zeolite to solid dairy cattle manure reduced NH3 emission; sealed storages in all IS reduced volatilization of N and C; bio-energy production from the feces reduced the production of fossil electricity and heat; and finally N emissions in the field were reduced by ammonia emission reducing application techniques and improved application management (tillage, field traffic en synchronization of manure product application with crop demand). Compared with the Ref, NL had lower TA, PMF, POA, and higher NUE, except for solid cattle manure applied to grass. This result indicates that the Dutch regulations to reduce NH3 emissions were successful, but that CC can be improved. Compared with NW EU practice, IS reduced environmental impact up to 185% for CC, up to > 700% for FFD, up to 96% for TA, up to 99% for ME, up to 100% for PMF, up to 110% for POA and more than doubled the NUE. We concluded that the designed IS avoid pollution swapping in the entire manure management system.
Integrated manure management to reduce environmental impact: I. Structured design of strategies
Vries, J.W. de; Hoogmoed, W.B. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Schroder, J.J. ; Sukkel, W. ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G. - \ 2015
Agricultural Systems 139 (2015). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 29 - 37.
Management of animal manure in livestock and crop production is a major cause of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and carbon (C) loss. The losses of N, P, and C contribute to adverse environmental impacts, such as climate change, terrestrial acidification, and marine eutrophication. Manure management technologies to reduce losses and impacts have been developed, but often focus on a single compound only or a single stage in the management system and lead to trade-offs, such as pollution swapping. The aim of this study was to design strategies for integrated manure management (IS) which prevent pollution swapping and show that the environmental impact can be reduced throughout the manure management system. We used a structured design approach based on engineering design (ED) that consists of eight main steps: 1. define the goal of the design task and the system boundaries, 2. formulate a brief of requirements stating the needs for environmental reduction, 3. analyze the functions in the current manure management system, 4. list and describe emission processes and their process variables that lead to N, P, and C losses and resource use, 5. describe the functions needed in the manure management system to limit the emission processes or resource use, 6. generate principle-options that can fulfill the functions, 7. generate technical solutions for the principle-options, and 8. combine the principle-options and technical solutions into strategies for integrated manure management. In the design of strategies we considered the management of liquid and solid dairy cattle manure applied to grass and maize, and liquid pig manure applied to wheat, all under North West European conditions. The IS included the segregation of pig and dairy cattle urine and feces to reduce CH4, NH3, and N2O emission, addition of zeolite to solid cattle manure to reduce NH3 emission, bio-energy production from biogas that avoids fossil-based electricity and heat, acidification of urine during storage and acidification of feces prior to application, sealed storages, and improved application timing, place, and method of application. It was concluded that we were able to successfully design IS with high potential to reduce environmental impact. The design approach adapted from ED proved to be useful to structure the design process to provide insight into interactions of emission processes and find principle-options and technical solutions to prevent pollution swapping.
Reconstruction of ploughed soil surface with 3D fractal interpolation
Liu, Y. ; Lu, Z. ; Hoogmoed, W.B. ; Li, X. - \ 2014
Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery 45 (2014)3. - ISSN 1000-1298 - p. 152 - 157.
By using a laser profiler, the roughness of ploughed soil surface was obtained. 3D fractal interpolation method was used to interpolate several kinds of reduced measured surface data which were reduced from the original measured ploughed soil surface elevation data in different reduction rates. Also fractal and statistical characteristic parameters were used to compare the original data and the interpolated data. The results show that 3D ploughed soil surface model can be obtained efficiently by the 3D fractal interpolation method with the reduction rate below 80% and the fractal non-scale spacing of the dimensions was deduced: the transverse and longitudinal spacing were 23¿mm and 459¿mm, respectively. The result provided a theory for choosing the minimum measurement spacing of the ploughed soil and a method for reconstruction of ploughed soil surface.
Comparison of calculation methods of fractal dimension on agricultural soil surface roughness
Chunxia, J. ; Zhixiong, L. ; Hao, X. ; Jing, Z. ; Hoogmoed, W.B. - \ 2014
Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University = Nanjing Nongye Daxue Xuebao 38 (2014)1. - ISSN 1000-2030 - p. 161 - 167.
[Objectives]How the fractal theory as an efficient tool to describe rough and irregular geometrical feature in nonlinear system and nature is applied into agricultural soil research is hot issue at present. [Methods]The roughness data of agricultural soil surface after sowed(perpendicular to the sowed direction), sowed surface(along with the sowed direction), ploughed surface(perpendicular to the ploughed direction), and rolled surface(along with the rolled direction)were obtained by laser roughness measuring instrument. The fractal dimensions, non-scale space and correlation coefficient were computed respectively by three methods, i.e.variate-difference method, the structure function method, and the mean square root method. [Results]The undulation of surface after ploughed was large, but with small fractal dimension and less fine structure, and low complex degree as a consequence;the undulation of surface in perpendicular direction after sowed was also large, but with low complicated degree, while the undulation in parallel direction was conversely small with high complicated degree;the undulation of surface in rolled direction after rolled was larger than that was sowed, but with low complicated degree. [Conclusions]The fractal dimension calculated by using the mean square root method was the most accurate, which had good correlation of linear regression and small variation of non-scale range.
Proximal Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy to Predict Soil Properties Using Windows and Full-Spectrum Analysis Methods
Mahmood, H.S. ; Hoogmoed, W.B. ; Henten, E.J. van - \ 2013
Sensors 13 (2013)12. - ISSN 1424-8220 - p. 16263 - 16280.
plant-available potassium - spectrometry - sensor - models - clay
Fine-scale spatial information on soil properties is needed to successfully implement precision agriculture. Proximal gamma-ray spectroscopy has recently emerged as a promising tool to collect fine-scale soil information. The objective of this study was to evaluate a proximal gamma-ray spectrometer to predict several soil properties using energy-windows and full-spectrum analysis methods in two differently managed sandy loam fields: conventional and organic. In the conventional field, both methods predicted clay, pH and total nitrogen with a good accuracy (R2 = 0.56) in the top 0–15 cm soil depth, whereas in the organic field, only clay content was predicted with such accuracy. The highest prediction accuracy was found for total nitrogen (R2 = 0.75) in the conventional field in the energy-windows method. Predictions were better in the top 0–15 cm soil depths than in the 15–30 cm soil depths for individual and combined fields. This implies that gamma-ray spectroscopy can generally benefit soil characterisation for annual crops where the condition of the seedbed is important. Small differences in soil structure (conventional vs. organic) cannot be determined. As for the methodology, we conclude that the energy-windows method can establish relations between radionuclide data and soil properties as accurate as the full-spectrum analysis method.
Evaluation and implementation of vis-NIR spectroscopy models to determine workability
Mahmood, H.S. ; Bartholomeus, H. ; Hoogmoed, W.B. ; Henten, E. van - \ 2013
Soil & Tillage Research 134 (2013). - ISSN 0167-1987 - p. 172 - 179.
near-infrared spectroscopy - diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy - soil organic-carbon - spectral library - workable range - tropical zone - prediction - field - calibrations - veracruz
Quantitative information of soil properties and their spatial distribution is needed for site-specific soil management. Conventional laboratory methods to obtain high-resolution soil data are expensive and labour intensive. Visible-near infrared (vis-NIR) reflectance spectroscopy is a rapid and cost-effective technique for successful soil characterisation. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of vis-NIR reflectance models to predict tillage (workability) related soil properties, such as texture and total organic carbon (TOC) and other common soil properties on a field scale using different types of modelling strategies. For prediction of these properties, spectral data were related to soil properties using support vector regression. For this method, the influence of calibration set on the accuracy of prediction for independent samples was evaluated. The types of models included local models (LMs; models of individual fields), general models (GMs; models of combining equal proportions of samples from all fields), spiked models (SMs; using 10 samples from the target field and all samples from other fields) and true validation models (TVMs; calibration from four fields and validation in the remaining field). The main difference between these models lies in the number of soil samples that need to be taken from a specific field of interest, which determines the investments that have to be made. Results revealed that LMs gave the best results (e.g. the RMSEP was less than 1.7% for clay in all fields), but a large number of samples has to be taken from each field, which costs a lot of time and money. Therefore, this type of models may not be so practical for a farmer having multiple fields. The GMs showed variable accuracies for different sized models, where the accuracy increases with increasing the number of samples in the calibration subset. This means that a large number of samples is needed for making a good calibration model and therefore GMs may also not be so effective. The TVMs are cheap to make, but the risk of wrong predictions in the target field, which is different from the calibration fields, is present. The SMs yielded predictions comparable to the LMs and yielded an acceptable RMSEP with a limited number of samples per field (10 samples) for clay and TOC. This makes SMs very effective with the potential to predict workability related soil properties with a limited number of samples in the target fields
A functional evaluation of three indicator sets for assessing soil quality
Lima, A.C.R. ; Brussaard, L. ; Totola, M.R. ; Hoogmoed, W.B. ; Goede, R.G.M. de - \ 2013
Applied Soil Ecology 64 (2013). - ISSN 0929-1393 - p. 194 - 200.
production systems - management - tillage - health
Efforts to define and quantify soil quality are not new, but establishing consensus about a set of standardized indicators remains difficult. Also, the view of land managers is usually not taken into account when evaluating various sets of indicators. Our objective was to compare, in functional terms, soil quality assessments based on 29 indicators, a subset with 8 of those indicators, and 4 indicators selected independently by farmers, based on their perceptions of soil quality. The assessments were made for three different rice management systems in Camaquã, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, on soils of four soil textural classes based on clay content (600 g kg-1). The effects of land management practices on soil functions (water infiltration, storage and supply; nutrient storage, supply and cycling; and sustained biological activity) were evaluated. Soil quality was best assessed using the entire set of 29 indicators, but use of smaller indicator sets showed the same trends among management systems, textural classes, and soil functions, thus providing meaningful information on soil quality for land managers.
Research on a special scarifier mechanism with Finite Element Analysis method.
Jiandong Jian, ; Hoogmoed, W.B. ; GuoXing Tao, ; Jie Gao, ; Xian Zhang, - \ 2012
Advanced Materials Research 433-440 (2012). - ISSN 1022-6680 - p. 1044 - 1051.
A scarifier mechanism with rotary tillage and anti-rotary grubbing is proposed for inducing the power of tillage in hardens soil. MAT147 material modal is amended by experimental method and soil high-speed cutting finite element modal is build through SPH method, further, the tools parameter of proposed mechanism and soil cutting speed are studied by FEA numerical simulation through orthogonal experiments method. Finally, the result shows that the proposed mechanism with proper structural parameters and work speeds can reduce the requirement of power of tillage and increase the working efficiency of small agricultural machinery.
Warming impacts on winter wheat phenophase and grain yield under field conditions in Yangtze Delta Plain, China
Tian, Y.L. ; Chen, J. ; Chen, C.Q. ; Deng, A.X. ; Song, Z.W. ; Zheng, C.Y. ; Hoogmoed, W.B. ; Zhang, W.J. - \ 2012
Field Crops Research 134 (2012). - ISSN 0378-4290 - p. 193 - 199.
dry-matter - temperature - trends - radiation - growth
A five-year experiment with Free Air Temperature Increase facility was conducted to investigate the actual responses of winter wheat phenophase and yield to warming in Yangtze Delta Plain, China. Air temperature increase of around 1.5 degrees C in wheat canopy advanced crop phenophases significantly, leading to a reduction in length of the entire growth period by 10 days (P<0.05). This reduction was mainly found in the length of pre-anthesis phase, while the length of post-anthesis phase was prolonged slightly. Warming increased grain yield by 16.3% (P
Assessing the impact of soil degradation on food production
Bindraban, P.S. ; Velde, M. van der; Ye, L. ; Berg, M. van den; Materechera, S. ; Kiba, D.I. ; Tamene, L. ; Ragnarsdottir, K.V. ; Jongschaap, R.E.E. ; Hoogmoed, M. ; Hoogmoed, W.B. ; Beek, C.L. ; Lynden, G.W.J. van - \ 2012
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 4 (2012)5. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 478 - 488.
conservation agriculture - carbon sequestration - land degradation - africa - erosion - yield - management - security - climate - trends
Continuing soil degradation remains a serious threat to future food security. Yet, global soil degradation assessments are based on qualitative expert judgments or remotely sensed quantitative proxy values that suffice to raise awareness but are too coarse to identify appropriate sustainable land management interventions. Studies in China and Sub Saharan Africa illustrate the considerable impact of degradation on crop production but also point to the need for solutions dependent on location specific agro-ecological conditions and farming systems.The development of a comprehensive approach should be feasible to better assess both extent and impact of soil degradation interlinking various scales, based on production ecological approaches and remote sensing to allow disentangling natural and human induced causes of degradation. A shared common knowledge base cataloguing hard-won location-specific interventions is needed for successfully preventing or mitigating degradation
Sensor data fusion to predict multiple soil properties
Mahmood, H.S. ; Hoogmoed, W.B. ; Henten, E.J. van - \ 2012
Precision Agriculture 13 (2012)6. - ISSN 1385-2256 - p. 628 - 645.
least-squares regression
The accuracy of a single sensor is often low because all proximal soil sensors respond to more than one soil property of interest. Sensor data fusion can potentially overcome this inability of a single sensor and can best extract useful and complementary information from multiple sensors or sources. In this study, a data fusion was performed of a Vis–NIR spectrometer and an EM38 sensor for multiple soil properties. Stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR), partial least squares regression (PLSR) and principal components analysis combined with stepwise multiple linear regression (PCA + SMLR) methods were used in three different fields. Soil properties investigated for data fusion included soil texture (clay, silt and sand), EC, pH, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and carbon to nitrogen ratio (CN). It was found that soil property models based on fusion methods significantly improved the accuracy of predictions of soil properties measureable by both sensors, such as clay, silt, sand, EC and pH from those based on either of the individual sensors. The accuracy of predictions of TOC, TN and CN was also improved in some cases, but was not consistent in all fields. Among data fusion methods, PLSR outperformed both SMLR and PCA + SMLR methods because it proved to have a better ability to deal with the multi-collinearity among the predictor variables of both sensors. The best data fusion results were found in a clayey field and the worst in a sandy field. It is concluded that sensor data fusion can enhance the quality of soil sensing in precision agriculture once a proper set of sensors has been selected for fusion to estimate desired soil properties. More efficient statistical data analysis methods are needed to handle a large volume of data effectively from multiple sensors for sensor data fusion.
Sensing soil properties in the laboratory, in situ, and on-Line: A review
Kuang, B. ; Mahmood, H.S. ; Quraishi, Z. ; Hoogmoed, W.B. ; Mouazen, A.M. ; Henten, E. van - \ 2012
Advances in Agronomy 114 (2012). - ISSN 0065-2113 - p. 155 - 223.
ground-penetrating radar - infrared reflectance spectroscopy - time-domain reflectometry - ion-selective electrodes - apparent electrical-conductivity - partial least-squares - gamma-ray spectrometry - complex dielectric permittivity - plant-available potassium
Since both the spatial and vertical heterogeneities in soil properties have an impact on crop growth and yield, accurate characterization of soil properties at high sampling resolution is a preliminary step in successful management of soil-water-plant system. Conventional soil sampling and analyses have shown mixed economical returns due to the high costs associated with labor-intensive sampling and analysis procedures, which might be accompanied with map uncertainties. Therefore, the conventional laboratory methods are being replaced or complemented with the analytical soil sensing techniques. The objective of this chapter is to review different soil sensing methods used to characterize key soil properties for management of soil-water-plant system. This will cover laboratory, in situ in the field, and on-line measurement methods. This review chapter is furnished with an overview of background information about a sensing concept, basic principle and brief theory, various factors affecting the output of the sensor, and justification of why specific soil properties can be related with its output. The literature review is succeeded with an integration and analysis of findings in view of application in the precision agriculture domain. Potentials and limitations of current sensor technology are discussed and compared with commonly used state-of-the-art laboratory techniques. As sensing is commonly addressed as a very technical discipline, the match between the information currently collected with sensors and those required for site-specific application of different inputs, and crop growth and development is discussed, highlighting the most accurate method to measure a soil property for a given application.
Tillage and crop residue effects on rainfed wheat and maize production in Northern China
Wang Xiaobin, ; Wu Huijin, ; Dai Kuai, ; Zhang Dingchen, ; Feng Donghui, ; Zhao Quansheng, ; Wu Xueping, ; Jin Ke, ; Cai Diangxiong, ; Oenema, O. ; Hoogmoed, W.B. - \ 2012
Field Crops Research 132 (2012). - ISSN 0378-4290 - p. 106 - 116.
conservation tillage - management-practices - thermal-properties - soil-water - no-tillage - yield - availability - agriculture - adoption - stubble
Dryland farming in the dry semi-humid regions of northern China is dominated by mono-cropping systems with mainly maize (Zea mays L.) or wheat (Triticum aestivum), constrained by low and variable rainfall, and by improper management practices. Addressing these problems, field studies on tillage and residue management for winter wheat and spring maize were conducted at 4 sites in Linfen, Tunliu and Shouyang (Shanxi province) and Luoyang (Henan province). These studies (a.o.) explored the impacts of different tillage and residue application methods on soil physical conditions, water storage, water use, water use efficiency (WUE) and crop yields of wheat and maize. An analysis of the results of these studies is presented. Conservation tillage, comprising no-till as well as reduced tillage practices (subsoiling, deep ploughing) showed benefits which were more prominent in combination with residue application. Benefits compared to conventional tillage were found in the form of improved soil physical conditions, such as higher topsoil bulk densities but lower subsoil bulk densities. This resulted in a better water storage during the summer fallow or rainy season in winter wheat fields, and a better water conservation and soil protection in spring maize fields. Compared to conventional methods, reduced tillage gave yields around 13–16% higher in spring maize and round 9–37% higher in winter wheat. Yields under no-till were very close to those from conventional methods. Surface application of crop residue for maize was found to increase the risk for delayed seedling emergence, because of low temperatures, leading to a recommendation for incorporation of residue in combination with reduced tillage. For winter wheat, subsoiling in combination with straw mulching after harvest in summer every other two or three year, and no-till seeding is a promising practice for sandier soils and low rainfall conditions. For heavier clay loam soils, deep ploughing with straw mulching after wheat harvest in summer every other two or three year, and no-till seeding practice is recommended. For spring maize, deep ploughing with straw and fertilizers incorporation after harvest in fall, and no-till seeding practices are recommended. Subsoiling or no-till with residue mulching after harvest in fall, and no-till seeding practices in spring are also promising practices, the latter only in situations where low spring temperatures are not a problem. Continuous no-till is not recommended
Assessment of strip tillage systems for maize production in semi-arid Ethiopia: effects on grain yield, water balance and water productivity
Temesgen, M. ; Savenije, H.H.G. ; Rockström, J. ; Hoogmoed, W.B. - \ 2012
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 47-48 (2012). - ISSN 1474-7065 - p. 156 - 165.
hydraulic-properties - soil - evapotranspiration - generation - drought - area
The Maresha, the traditional Ethiopian plow, requires repeated cross-plowing which causes increased surface runoff, less infiltration and hence lower water availability to crops. The main reasons for increased surface runoff and reduced infiltration are plowing along the slope and the formation of a plow pan at shallow depths. Conservation tillage is seen as a way to alleviate these problems. The widely advocated zero-tillage, however, is not feasible for smallholder farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia because of difficulties in maintaining adequate soil cover, the practice of communal grazing, and high costs of herbicides. Strip tillage systems, on the other hand, may offer a solution. This study was initiated to test strip tillage systems and to evaluate the impacts of new tillage systems on the water balance and grain yields of maize. Experiments have been conducted in a semi-arid area called Melkawoba in the central Rift Valley of Ethiopia during 2003-2005. Strip tillage systems involved cultivation along planting lines at a spacing of 0.75 m using the Maresha plow followed by subsoiling along the same lines (STS) or without subsoiling (ST). Results have been compared with traditional tillage involving 3 to 4 overpasses with the Maresha plow (CONV). Soil moisture has been monitored to a depth of 1.8 m using a Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) while surface runoff has been measured using a specially designed rectangular trough installed at the bottom of each plot. STS resulted in the least surface runoff (Qs=18 mm-season-1) and the highest grain yields (Y=2130 kg-ha-1) followed by ST (Qs=26 mm-season-1, Y=1840 kg-ha-1) and CONV (Qs=43 mm-season-1, Y=1720 kg-ha-1) provided sowing was carried out within a week after subsoiling. Thus, STS resulted in the highest water productivity, WP=0.60 kg-m-3, followed by ST (WP=0.52 kg-m-3) and CONV (WP=0.48 kg-m-3). The main conclusion of the paper is that even in dry areas reasonable yields can be obtained provided moisture conservation in the root zone is guaranteed. In this regard subsoiling is essential. Moreover, it is concluded that the time between subsoiling and planting is a key factor and should not exceed one week
Climate change and conservation agriculture in Europe/NL
Hoogmoed, Willem - \ 2011
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