Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Stress response, peripheral serotonin and natural antibodies in feather pecking genotypes and phenotypes and their relation with coping style
Eijk, Jerine A.J. van der; Lammers, Aart ; Kjaer, J.B. ; Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2019
Physiology and Behavior 199 (2019). - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 1 - 10.
Feather pecking - genotype - natural antibody - phenotype - serotonin - stress response

Feather pecking (FP), a serious welfare and economic issue in the egg production industry, has been related to coping style. Proactive and reactive coping styles differ in, among others, the stress response, serotonergic activity and immune activity. Yet, it is unknown whether genetic lines divergently selected on FP (i.e. FP genotypes) or individuals differing in FP (i.e. FP phenotypes) can be categorized into coping styles. Therefore, we determined peripheral serotonin (5-HT) levels, natural antibody (NAb) titers, behavioral and corticosterone (CORT) responses to manual restraint (MR) in FP genotypes (high FP (HFP), low FP (LFP) and unselected control (CON) line) and FP phenotypes (feather pecker, feather pecker-victim, victim and neutral). We further examined the consistency of and relationships between behavioral and physiological measures. FP genotypes differed in behavioral responses to MR, 5-HT levels and NAb titers, but not in CORT levels after MR. HFP birds had less active responses at adolescent age, but more active responses at adult age compared to LFP and CON birds. The CON line had higher 5-HT levels at adolescent age, while the HFP line had lower 5-HT levels than the other lines at adult age. Overall, the HFP line had lower IgM NAb titers, while the LFP line had lower IgG NAb titers compared to the other lines. FP phenotypes differed in behavioral responses to MR and 5-HT levels, but not in CORT levels after MR or NAb titers. Within the HFP line, feather peckers tended to have less active responses compared to neutrals at adolescent age, while victims had more active responses compared to the other phenotypes at adult age. Feather peckers had higher 5-HT levels than neutrals at adult age. Behavioral and CORT responses to MR were not consistent over time, suggesting that responses to MR might not reflect coping style in this study. Furthermore, proactive behavioral responses were correlated with reactive physiological measures and vice versa. Thus, it was not possible to categorize FP genotypes or FP phenotypes into specific coping styles.

Feather pecking phenotype affects behavioural responses of laying hens
Eijk, J.A.J. van der; Lammers, A. ; Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2018
In: Proceedings of the 52nd Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology. - Wageningen, The Netherlands : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863228 - p. 169 - 169.
Feather pecking (FP) is a major welfare and economic issue in the egg production industry. It involves hens pecking and pulling at feathers of conspecics, thereby negatively aecting welfare. Behavioural characteristics, such as fearfulness, have been related to FP. Although many studies have identied dierences in fearfulness between lines that dier in FP, the relationship between actual FP behaviour (i.e. FP phenotypes) and fearfulness is not well understood. erefore, we compared responses of birds with diering FP phenotypes to several behavioural tests at young and adult ages. We used birds from a genetic line selected for high feather pecking. FP phenotypes of individual birds were identied via FP observations at 3-4, 12-13, 15-16 and 28-29 weeks of age. e total number of severe feather pecks (SFP) given and received over two subsequent weeks was used to categorize birds as feather peckers (P, SFP given >1), feather pecker-victims (P-V, SFP given and received >1), victims (V, SFP received >1) or neutrals (N, SFP given and received 0 or 1) at each age point. Birds were tested individually in a novel environment (NE) test at 4 weeks of age, an open eld (OF) test at 15 weeks of age and a tonic immobility (TI) test at 13 and 28 weeks of age. Experimenters were blinded to the phenotypes. Data were analysed using linear mixed models, with phenotype and batch as xed factors and pen as a random factor. Test time was added as a xed eect for the NE and OF test. Experimenter was added as a xed eect for the NE and TI test. Testing order was included as a xed eect for the TI test. Phenotype eects were tested for each behavioural test and age separately using the most recent FP phenotype categorization. FP phenotype aected the number of ight attempts (F3, 119=3.18, P<0.05) during the NE test, where victims showed more ight attempts compared to neutrals (V=2.3 vs n=1.6; P<0.05) and tended to show fewer ight attempts compared to feather peckers (V=2.3 vs P=2.7; P<0.1). FP phenotype further tended to aect step frequency (F3, 75=2.64, P<0.1) during the OF test, where feather peckers tended to walk more compared to neutrals (P=24.6 vs n=15.7; P<0.1). No FP phenotype eects were found for the TI test. Feather peckers tended to show more active responses (i.e. tended to show more ight attempts compared to victims and tended to walk more compared to neutrals), which could suggest lower fearfulness, compared to victims at 4 weeks of age and compared to neutrals at 15 weeks of age. ese ndings give rst indications that FP phenotypes seem to dier in fearfulness. It should be noted that we only found dierences in the NE and OF test, where behavioural responses could also be related to activity or coping style. Further research is needed to identify whether FP phenotypes dier in activity and whether they can be classied into dierent coping styles.
In vitro model to study trained innate immunity in chicken primary monocytes
Verwoolde, M.B. ; Biggelaar, Robin H.G.A. van den; Baal, J. van; Jansen, Christine A. ; Lammers, A. - \ 2018
Early-life microbiota transplantation affects behavioural responses in feather pecking selection lines
Weetering, Y. van de; Eijk, J.A.J. van der; Lammers, A. ; Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2018
Feather pecking (FP) is a major welfare and economic problem in the laying hen industry, as it can cause feather damage and could lead to injuries or even mortality of victims. FP is multifactorial and has been related to behaviours such as fearfulness. Gut microbiota might contribute to FP, as it influences behaviours in rodent models that have been linked to FP such as anxiety. Moreover, recent studies have found that high and low FP lines differ in their cecal microbial metabolites and composition. However, it is unknown whether a causal link between the gut microbiota and FP exists. Therefore, we orally administered adult microbiota to newly hatched chicks (daily, day 0-14 of age). We used genetic lines selected for high (HFP, n = 288) and low (LFP, n = 288) FP. The microbiota transplants were collected from pooled gut content of 30 week old HFP and LFP donor birds. Each line received either HFP microbiota, LFP microbiota or control treatment. FP behaviour was observed via direct observations on pen-level between 0-5, 8-10 and 13-15 weeks of age. Furthermore, birds were tested in two behavioural tests; the Novel Object (NO) test at 3 days and 5 weeks of age and the Open Field (OF) test at 13 weeks of age. Although we did not find an effect of line*treatment interactions or treatment on FP, we did observe that birds treated with LFP microbiota stepped sooner (P < 0.01) and more and vocalized sooner compared to the control treated birds during the OF test (P < 0.05). Additionally, they stepped sooner during the OF, yet took longer to approach the NO compared to HFP microbiota groups (P < 0.05). Therefore, we conclude that early-life microbiota treatment affects behavioural responses, which might be related to fearfulness, social motivation or coping style.
Growth rate of broiler chickens is influenced by early life feeding strategy
Hollemans, M.S. ; Lammers, A. ; Vries, S. de - \ 2018
In: The XVth European Poultry Conference (EPC). - Zagreb, Croatia : - ISBN 9789082915709 - p. 579 - 579.
delayed nutrition - early nutrition - Intestinal permeability - compensatory growth
After hatching in conventional systems, broiler chickens have a delay to nutrition thatcan last for 72h, depending on length of the hatch window, internal hatchery proceduresand transport duration. Previous research on early life feeding strategies has shownnegative effects on bodyweight (BW) gain after delayed nutrition (DN), compared withearly nutrition (EN). However, it is not known whether DN chickens can (partially)compensate for their lower BW between hatch and slaughter. In this study, we tested thehypothesis that DN chickens have an increased growth rate, as a result of compensatorygrowth. Data from 3 independent experiments were used. In these studies, broilerswere subjected to either EN or DN with different durations of DN (38 to 72 h) and daysto slaughter (14 to 35 d). In all experiments, DN groups had lower BW compared withEN which was sustained until slaughter. Relative differences in BW, however, decreasedfrom 114 to 176% post placement to 102 – 112 % at slaughter (35 d). Growth curves of DNand EN chickens were analysed to study whether compensatory growth could explain thedifferences in BW between EN and DN. Absolute average daily gain (aADG) was higher inEN chickens from start until slaughter. To analyse the growth curve independent of BW,relative ADG (rADG) between two ages was calculated as follows:Differences in rADG between DN and EN chickens were greater in the first 14 d (DN:63%, EN: 47%; P < 0.001), but smaller in the remaining grow-out period (14 – 28 d:DN: 18%, EN: 16%; 28 – 35 d: DN: 8%, EN: 7%; both P <0 .001). Based on these results,it seems that DN broilers compensate for their lag in BW during the first 14 d postplacement. As differences in absolute BW were still present at 35 d, the increase in rADGseems insufficient to catch up with EN broilers. EN chickens have higher aADG untilslaughter, however, rADG is lower, showing that growth rate is influenced by feedingstrategy. Previous literature describes interactions between compensatory growth andnutrient composition of diets on nitrogen and fat retention. This may give reason forfuture work to evaluate effects of early life feeding strategy on carcass traits.
Body weight is affected by early life feeding strategy and hatch moment in broiler chickens
Hollemans, M.S. ; Noorloos, Marit ; Vries, S. de; Lammers, A. - \ 2018
In: The XVth European Poultry Conference (EPC). - Zagreb, Croatia : - ISBN 9789082915709 - p. 259 - 259.
delayed nutrition - early nutrition - Intestinal permeability - compensatory growth
After hatching in conventional systems, broiler chickens have a delay to nutrition that can last for 72h, depending on length of the hatch window, internal hatchery procedures and transport duration. Previous research on early life feeding strategies has shown negative effects on bodyweight (BW) gain after delayed nutrition (DN), compared with early nutrition (EN). However, it is not known whether DN chickens can (partially)compensate for their lower BW between hatch and slaughter. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that DN chickens have an increased growth rate, as a result of compensatory growth. Data from 3 independent experiments were used. In these studies, broilers were subjected to either EN or DN with different durations of DN (38 to 72 h) and days to slaughter (14 to 35 d). In all experiments, DN groups had lower BW compared withEN which was sustained until slaughter. Relative differences in BW, however, decreased from 114 to 176% post placement to 102 – 112 % at slaughter (35 d). Growth curves of DN and EN chickens were analysed to study whether compensatory growth could explain the differences in BW between EN and DN. Absolute average daily gain (aADG) was higher in EN chickens from start until slaughter. To analyse the growth curve independent of BW, relative ADG (rADG) between two ages was calculated as follows: Differences in rADG between DN and EN chickens were greater in the first 14 d (DN:63%, EN: 47%; P < 0.001), but smaller in the remaining grow-out period (14 – 28 d:DN: 18%, EN: 16%; 28 – 35 d: DN: 8%, EN: 7%; both P <0 .001). Based on these results,it seems that DN broilers compensate for their lag in BW during the first 14 d postplacement. As differences in absolute BW were still present at 35 d, the increase in rADG seems insufficient to catch up with EN broilers. EN chickens have higher aADG until slaughter, however, rADG is lower, showing that growth rate is influenced by feeding strategy. Previous literature describes interactions between compensatory growth and nutrient composition of diets on nitrogen and fat retention. This may give reason for future work to evaluate effects of early life feeding strategy on carcass traits.
Feather pecking genotype and phenotype affect behavioural responses of laying hens
Eijk, Jerine A.J. van der; Lammers, Aart ; Li, Peiyun ; Kjaer, Joergen B. ; Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2018
Applied Animal Behaviour Science 205 (2018). - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 141 - 150.
Activity - Coping style - Fearfulness - Feather pecking - Genotype - Phenotype

Feather pecking (FP) is a major welfare and economic issue in the egg production industry. Behavioural characteristics, such as fearfulness, have been related to FP. However, it is unknown how divergent selection on FP affects fearfulness in comparison to no selection on FP. Therefore, we compared responses of birds selected on low (LFP) and high feather pecking (HFP) with birds from an unselected control line (CON) to several behavioural tests (i.e. novel object (NO), novel environment (NE), open field (OF) and tonic immobility (TI)) at young and adult ages. Furthermore, the relation between actual FP behaviour (i.e. FP phenotypes) and fearfulness is not well understood. Therefore, we compared responses of birds with differing FP phenotypes. Feather pecking phenotypes of individual birds were identified via FP observations at several ages. The number of severe feather pecks given and received was used to categorize birds as feather peckers, feather pecker-victims, victims or neutrals. Here we show that HFP birds repeatedly had more active responses (i.e. they approached a NO sooner, vocalized sooner and more, showed more flight attempts and had shorter TI durations), which could indicate lower fearfulness, compared to CON and LFP birds at both young and adult ages. Within the HFP line, feather peckers had more active responses (i.e. they tended to show more flight attempts compared to victims and tended to walk more compared to neutrals), suggesting lower fearfulness, compared to victims and neutrals. Thus, in this study high FP seems to be related to low fearfulness, which is opposite to what previously has been found in other experimental and commercial lines. This stresses the need for further research into the genetic and phenotypic correlations between FP and fearfulness in various populations of chickens, especially in commercial lines. Findings from experimental lines should be used with caution when developing control and/or prevention methods that are to be applied in commercial settings. Furthermore, activity and/or coping style might overrule fearfulness within the HFP line, as HFP birds and feather peckers within the HFP line had more active responses. This might indicate a complex interplay between fearfulness, activity and coping style that could play a role in the development of FP.

Effects of early feeding and dietary interventions on development of lymphoid organs and immune competence in neonatal chickens : A review
Taha-Abdelaziz, Khaled ; Hodgins, Douglas C. ; Lammers, Aart ; Alkie, Tamiru Negash ; Sharif, Shayan - \ 2018
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 201 (2018). - ISSN 0165-2427 - p. 1 - 11.
Antimicrobial peptides - Chicken - Dietary supplementation - Early feeding - Feed additives - Heat stress - Immune system - In ovo feeding - Lymphoid organs - Nanoparticles - Phytobiotics - Prebiotics - Probiotics - TLR ligands
With the ongoing intensification of the poultry industry and the continuous need to control pathogens, there is a critical need to extend our understanding of the avian immune system and the role of nutritional interventions on development of immune competence in neonatal chicks. In this review, we will focus on the ontogeny of the lymphoid organs during embryonic life and the first 2 weeks post-hatch, and how early feeding practices improve heath and modulate the development and function of the immune system in young chicks. The evidence for the positive impact of the nutrition of breeder hens on embryonic development and on the survival and immunity of their chicks will also be outlined. Additionally, we will discuss the vital role of supplemental feeding either in ovo or immediately post-hatch in chick health and immunity and the importance of these approaches in ameliorating immune system functions of heat-stressed chicks. To conclude, we provide some perspectives on a number of key issues, concerning the mechanisms of nutritional modulation of immunity, that need to be addressed. A thorough investigation of these mechanisms may assist in the formulation of diets to improve the immunity and general health status.
Effects of early nutrition and transport of 1-day-old chickens on production performance and fear response
Hollemans, M.S. ; Vries, S. de; Lammers, A. ; Clouard, C.M. - \ 2018
Poultry Science 97 (2018)7. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 2534 - 2542.
broiler - chicken - early nutrition - transport - behavior - production performance
The importance of optimal early life conditions of broilers to sustain efficient and healthy production of broiler meat is increasingly recognized. Therefore, novel husbandry systems are developed, in which immediate provision of nutrition post hatch is combined with on-farm hatching. In these novel systems, 1-day-old-chick handling and transport are minimized. To study whether early nutrition and reduced transport are beneficial for broiler performance and behavior, the effects of early or delayed nutrition and post-hatch handling and transport were tested from hatch until 35 d of age, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. In total, 960 eggs were hatched in 36 floor pens. After hatch, chicks were given immediate access to water and feed (early nutrition) or after 54 h (delayed nutrition). Eighteen hours after hatch, chicks remained in their pens (non-transported control), or were subjected to short-term handling and transport to simulate conventional procedures. Subsequently, chicks returned to their pens. Compared with delayed-fed chickens, early-fed chickens had greater body weight up to 21 d of age, but not at slaughter (35 d of age). No effects of transport or its interaction with moment of first nutrition were found on performance. At 3 d post hatch, transported, early-fed chicks had a greater latency to stand up in a tonic immobility test than transported, delayed-fed chicks, but only in chicks that were transported. At 30 d post hatch, however, latency was greater in transported, delayed-fed chickens than in transported, early-fed chicks. This may indicate long-term deleterious effects of delayed nutrition on fear response in transported chickens. It is concluded that early nutrition has mainly beneficial effects on performance during the first 2 wk post hatch, but these beneficial effects are less evident in later life. The combination of transport and early nutrition may influence the chicken's strategies to cope with stressful events in early and later life.
Early life feeding strategy and hatch moment affects early life body weight development
Hollemans, M.S. ; Noorloos, Marit ; Vries, S. de; Lammers, A. - \ 2018
In: Abstract of the WIAS Science Day 2018. - - p. 28 - 28.
Antigen-dependent effects of divergent selective breeding based on natural antibodies on specific humoral immune responses in chickens
Berghof, T.V.L. ; Arts, J.A.J. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Lammers, A. ; Poel, J.J. van der; Parmentier, H.K. - \ 2018
Vaccine 36 (2018)11. - ISSN 0264-410X - p. 1444 - 1452.
Breeding - Chicken - General disease resistance - Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) - Natural antibody - Specific antibody
NAb are defined as antigen binding antibodies present without a known previous exposure to this antigen. NAb are suggested to enhance specific antibody (SpAb) responses, but consequences of different NAb levels on immunization are largely unknown. Layer chickens were divergently selected and bred for keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-binding NAb titers, resulting in a High line and a Low line. In this study, we investigated: (1) the relation of NAb levels with SpAb titers; and (2) the effect of immunization on NAb titers. The 50 highest females of the High line and the 50 lowest females of the Low line of generation 2 were intramuscularly immunized at 33 weeks of age with 1 mL phosphate buffered saline (PBS) containing one of four treatments: (1) negative control (no antigen), (2) 500 μg KLH, (3) 100 μg avian tuberculin purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium avium (PPD), or (4) 250 μg human serum albumin (HuSA). IgM and IgG titers of NAb and SpAb in plasma were determined prior to immunization and weekly for 5 weeks post immunization by indirect ELISA. In addition, antibody affinity was investigated. No differences in SpAb and NAb response against KLH and PPD were observed as a consequence of different NAb titers, but increased and prolonged SpAb and NAb titer responses against HuSA were observed for the High line compared to the Low line. Different natural antibody titers did not impair SpAb dynamics and SpAb affinity. NAb titers were not, or for only short-term, affected by immunization. We show here that NAb may enhance SpAb responses, but that this effect is antigen-dependent. We hypothesize that NAb play a role in general disease resistance through enhancement of the humoral adaptive immune response.
Effect of butyrate concentration in the GIT on innate and adaptive immune responses of broilers
Moquet, P.C.A. ; Konnert, G.D.P. ; Lammers, A. ; Onrust, L. ; Kwakkel, R.P. - \ 2017
Abstract #25757
Early nutrition strategy and transport play a role in the development of fear response and production performance
Hollemans, M.S. ; Vries, S. de; Lammers, A. ; Clouard, C.M. - \ 2017
Behavioural and physiological characterisation of laying hen lines divergently selected on feather pecking
Eijk, J.A.J. van der; Lammers, A. ; Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2017
In: Xth European Symposium on Poultry Welfare, 19-22 June 2017, Ploufragan - France. - World's Poultry Science Association (WPSA) - p. 60 - 60.
broiler breeders - nesting behaviour - genetics - nest design - housing - climate - laying hens - feather pecking - fearfulness - coping style - stress - imune system
Broilers have been selected for growth related characteristics, which are negatively correlated to reproductive traits. This genetic background creates challenges in broiler breeders, as the hens do not make optimal use of the nests provided. This project aims to investigate what factors determine nesting behaviour, i.e. where a broiler breeder hen prefers to lay her eggs. Factors such as genetic background, social interactions, physical characteristics of the nest and climate might interfere with the natural nesting behaviour of the hen. Also fundamental trade-offs between different motivations, such as hunger, comfort and safety, might influence nesting behaviour. Behaviour and use of space will be measured in experimental set-ups in order to gain insight in the importance of different system components. This knowledge will be used to optimise housing conditions and develop strategies that stimulate the hen to lay her egg in the nest. The performance of this improved system will be tested in field experiments to investigate the transferability of results from experimental to field conditions.
Feather pecking: is it in the way hens cope with stress?
Eijk, J.A.J. van der; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Lammers, A. - \ 2017
In: Proceedings of the 51st Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE), 7-10 August 2017, Aarhus, Denmark. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863112 - p. 139 - 139.
animal welfare - animal behaviour


Effects of early nutrition and transport of one-day-old chickens on production performance and behavior
Hollemans, M.S. ; Vries, S. de; Lammers, A. ; Clouard, C.M. - \ 2017
In: Abstract of the WIAS Science Day 2017: Beyond Sustainability. - - p. 9 - 9.
Selection for or against feather pecking: what are the consequences?
Eijk, J.A.J. van der; Lammers, A. ; Kemp, B. ; Naguib, M. ; Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2016
In: 16th International Conference on Production Diseases in Farm Animals. - Wageningen, The Netherlands : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862856 - p. 176 - 176.
Early-life behavioural development of lines divergently selected on feather pecking behaviour
Eijk, J.A.J. van der; Lammers, A. ; Kemp, B. ; Naguib, M. ; Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2016
In: Proceedings of the 50th Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology. - Wageningen, The Netherlands : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862870 - p. 85 - 85.
The behavioural development of an animal is affected by the interplay between its genetic background and its environment. In laying hens, feather pecking is a damaging behaviour that involves pecking and pulling at the feathers or tissue of conspecifics, negatively affecting welfare. Feather pecking is a heritable trait, but its development can be affected by manyfactors, including environmental factors. In order to better understand the development of this damaging behaviour, we characterised the early-life behavioural development of lines selected both for and against feather pecking. We used genetic lines selected for high (HFP)and low (LFP) feather pecking and an unselected control line. Lines were housed separately in groups of 19 birds per pen, with 8 pens per line. Group size was reduced by 2-3 birds at0, 5 and 10 weeks of age. There were two batches that differed two weeks in age. Birds were tested at 0 and 10 weeks of age in a novel object test, at 4 weeks of age in a novel environment test and at 15 weeks of age in an open field test. Data were analysed using mixed models, with selection line as fixed factor and pen nested within batch as random factor. When data were not normally distributed the non-parametric Kruskal Wallis test was used. HFP birds had a shorter latency to approach the novel object compared to LFP and control birds at both 0 weeksof age (HFP=36 s, LFP=120 s and control=117.5 s, F2,20=36.52, P<0.0001) and 10 weeks ofage (HFP=16.88 s, LFP=79.75 s and control=61 s, F2,20=12.60, P=0.0003). Furthermore, HFP birds had a shorter latency to vocalize compared to LFP and control birds at both 4 weeks of age (HFP=5.48 s, LFP=15.16 s and control=16.2 s, X22=42.23, P<0.0001) and 15 weeks of age(HFP=26.34 s, LFP=50.27 s and control=37.63 s, X22=15.59, P=0.0004). Thus, based on these three tests, HFP birds were less fearful at all studied ages compared to control and LFP birds. In addition, HFP birds showed a more pro-active coping style than control and LFP birds. In conclusion, our results suggest that selection for feather pecking affects early-life behavioural characteristics. These results can help to better understand the development of feather pecking behaviour, and possibly to identify early-life behavioural characteristics as potential indicators of feather pecking.
Divergent selection on feather pecking affects natural antibody levels
Eijk, J.A.J. van der; Lammers, A. ; Kemp, B. ; Naguib, M. ; Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2016
In: Proceedings of the Benelux ISAE Conference 2016, Proceedings of the Benelux ISAE Conference 2016 Berlicum, The Netherlands : International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE) - ISBN 9789462573949 - p. 23 - 23.
Do feather pecking hens go with their guts?
Eijk, J.A.J. van der; Vries, H.J.A. de; Naguib, M. ; Kemp, B. ; Smidt, H. ; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Lammers, A. - \ 2016
In: Abstracts of lectures and posters Mind, Mood & Microbes Conference 2016. - Amsterdam : - p. 69 - 69.
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