Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The Effect of Bioinduced Increased pH on the Enrichment of Calcium Phosphate in Granules during Anaerobic Treatment of Black Water
Cunha, Jorge Ricardo ; Tervahauta, Taina ; Weijden, Renata D. van der; Temmink, Hardy ; Hernández Leal, Lucía ; Zeeman, Grietje ; Buisman, Cees J.N. - \ 2018
Environmental Science and Technology 52 (2018)22. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 13144 - 13154.

Simultaneous recovery of calcium phosphate granules (CaP granules) and methane in anaerobic treatment of source separated black water (BW) has been previously demonstrated. The exact mechanism behind the accumulation of calcium phosphate (Cax(PO4)y) in CaP granules during black water treatment was investigated in this study by examination of the interface between the outer anaerobic biofilm and the core of CaP granules. A key factor in this process is the pH profile in CaP granules, which increases from the edge (7.4) to the center (7.9). The pH increase enhances supersaturation for Cax(PO4)y phases, creating internal conditions preferable for Cax(PO4)y precipitation. The pH profile can be explained by measured bioconversion of acetate and H2, HCO3 - and H+ into CH4 in the outer biofilm and eventual stripping of CO2 and CH4 (biogas) from the granule. Phosphorus content and Cax(PO4)y crystal mass quantity in the granules positively correlated with the granule size, in the reactor without Ca2+ addition, indicating that the phosphorus rich core matures with the granule growth. Adding Ca2+ increased the overall phosphorus content in granules >0.4 mm diameter, but not in fine particles (<0.4 mm). Additionally, H+ released from aqueous phosphate species during Cax(PO4)y crystallization were buffered by internal hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and stripping of biogas from the granule. These insights into the formation and growth of CaP granules are important for process optimization, enabling simultaneous Cax(PO4)y and CH4 recovery in a single reactor. Moreover, the biological induction of Cax(PO4)y crystallization resulting from biological increase of pH is relevant for stimulation and control of (bio)crystallization and (bio)mineralization in real environmental conditions.

The potential of osmolytes and their precursors to alleviate osmotic stress of anaerobic granular sludge.
Sudmalis, D. ; Millah, S.K. ; Gagliano, M.C. ; Butré, C.I. ; Plugge, C.M. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. ; Zeeman, G. ; Temmink, H. - \ 2018
Water Research 147 (2018). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 142 - 151.
Anaerobic granular sludge - Methanogenic activity - Osmolytes - Saline wastewater

Increasing amounts of saline (waste)water with high concentrations of organic pollutants are generated globally. In the anaerobic (waste)water treatment domain, high salt concentrations are repeatedly reported to inhibit methanogenic activity and strategies to overcome this toxicity are needed. Current research focuses on the use of potential osmolyte precursor compounds for osmotic stress alleviation in granular anaerobic sludges upon exposure to hypersalinity shocks. Glutamic acid, aspartic acid, lysine, potassium, gelatine, and tryptone were tested for their potential to alleviate osmotic stress in laboratory grown and full – scale granular sludge. The laboratory grown granular sludge was adapted to 5 (R5) and 20 (R20) g Na+/L. Full-scale granular sludge was obtained from internal circulation reactors treating tannery (waste)water with influent conductivity of 29.2 (Do) and 14.1 (Li) mS/cm. In batch experiments which focused on specific methanogenic activity (SMA), R5 granular sludge was exposed to a hypersalinity shock of 20 g Na+/L. The granular sludge of Do and Li was exposed to a hypersalinity shock of 10 g Na+/L with sodium acetate as the sole carbon source. The effects on R20 granular sludge were studied at the salinity level to which the sludge was already adapted, namely 20 g Na+/L. Dosing of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, gelatine, and tryptone resulted in increased SMA compared to only acetate fed batches. In batches with added glutamic acid, the SMA increased by 115% (Li), 35% (Do) and 9% (R20). With added aspartic acid, SMA increased by 72% (Li), 26% (Do), 12% (R5) and 7% (R20). The addition of tryptone resulted in SMA increases of 36% (R5), 17% (R20), 179% (Li), and 48% (Do), whereas added gelatine increased the SMA by 30% (R5), 14% (R20), 23% (Li), and 13% (Do). The addition of lysine, meanwhile, gave negative effects on SMA of all tested granular sludges. Potassium at sea water Na/K ratio (27.8 w/w) had a slight positive effect on SMA of Do (7.3%) and Li (10.1%), whereas at double the sea water ratio (13.9% w/w) had no pronounced positive effect. R20 granular sludge was also exposed to hyposalinity shock from 20 down to 5 g Na+/L. Glutamate and N-acetyl-β-lysine were excreted by microbial consortium in anaerobic granular sludge adapted to 20 g Na+/L upon this exposure to hyposalinity. A potential consequence when applying these results is that saline streams containing specific and hydrolysable proteins can be anaerobically treated without additional dosing of osmolytes.

Biological treatment of produced water coupled with recovery of neutral lipids
Sudmalis, D. ; Silva, P. da; Temmink, H. ; Bijmans, M.M. ; Pereira, M.A. - \ 2018
Water Research 147 (2018). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 33 - 42.
Alkane biodegradation - Biological treatment - Neutral lipids production - Produced water

Produced water (PW) is the largest waste stream generated by oil and gas industry. It is commonly treated by physical-chemical processes due to high salt content and poor biodegradability of water insoluble compounds, such as n-alkanes. N-alkanes can represent a major fraction of organic contaminants within PW. In this study the possibility of simultaneous n – alkane biodegradation and production of neutral lipids in a concentrated PW stream with A. borkumenis SK2 as the sole reactor inoculum was investigated. N-alkane removal efficiency up to 99.6%, with influent alkane COD of 7.4 g/L, was achieved in a continuously operated reactor system. Gas chromatography results also showed that the majority of other non-polar compounds present in the PW were biodegraded. Biodegradation of n-alkanes was accompanied by simultaneous production of neutral lipids, mostly wax ester (WE)-alike compounds. We demonstrate, that under nutrient limited conditions and 108.9 ± 3.3 mg/L residual n-alkane concentration the accumulation of extracellular WE-alike compounds can be up to 12 times higher compared to intracellular, reaching 3.08 grams per litre of reactor volume (g/Lreactor) extracellularly and 0.28 g/Lreactor intracellularly. With residual n-alkane concentration of 311.5 ± 34.2 mg/L accumulation of extracellular and intracellular WE-alike compounds can reach up to 6.15 and 0.91 g/Lreactor, respectively. To the best of our knowledge simultaneous PW treatment coupled with production of neutral lipids has never been demonstrated before.

Understanding and improving the reusability of phosphate adsorbents for wastewater effluent polishing
Suresh Kumar, Prashanth ; Ejerssa, Wondesen Workneh ; Wegener, Carita Clarissa ; Korving, Leon ; Dugulan, Achim Iulian ; Temmink, Hardy ; Loosdrecht, Mark C.M. van; Witkamp, Geert-Jan - \ 2018
Water Research 145 (2018). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 365 - 374.
Calcium adsorption - Phosphate adsorption - Regeneration - Reusability - Surface precipitation - Wastewater effluent

Phosphate is a vital nutrient for life but its discharge from wastewater effluents can lead to eutrophication. Adsorption can be used as effluent polishing step to reduce phosphate to very low concentrations. Adsorbent reusability is an important parameter to make the adsorption process economically feasible. This implies that the adsorbent can be regenerated and used over several cycles without appreciable performance decline. In the current study, we have studied the phosphate adsorption and reusability of commercial iron oxide based adsorbents for wastewater effluent. Effects of adsorbent properties like particle size, surface area, type of iron oxide, and effects of some competing ions were determined. Moreover the effects of regeneration methods, which include an alkaline desorption step and an acid wash step, were studied. It was found that reducing the adsorbent particle size increased the phosphate adsorption of porous adsorbents significantly. Amongst all the other parameters, calcium had the greatest influence on phosphate adsorption and adsorbent reusability. Phosphate adsorption was enhanced by co-adsorption of calcium, but calcium formed surface precipitates such as calcium carbonate. These surface precipitates affected the adsorbent reusability and needed to be removed by implementing an acid wash step. The insights from this study are useful in designing optimal regeneration procedures and improving the lifetime of phosphate adsorbents used for wastewater effluent polishing.

Editorial: Algal technologies for wastewater treatment and resource recovery :
Muñoz, Raul ; Temmink, Hardy ; Verschoor, Anthony M. ; Steen, Peter Van Der - \ 2018
Water Science and Technology 78 (2018)1. - ISSN 0273-1223 - 2 p.
Ons dagelijks (afval)water
Temmink, B.G. - \ 2018
In: Afvalwater / van Loosdrecht, Mark, Stams, Alfons, Hoekstra, Wiel, van de Graaf, Astrid, Den Haag : Stichting BWM - ISBN 9789073196902 - p. 23 - 28.
Effect of low concentrations of dissolved oxygen on the activity of denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria
Kampman, Christel ; Piai, Laura ; Temmink, Hardy ; Hendrickx, Tim L.G. ; Zeeman, Grietje ; Buisman, Cees J.N. - \ 2018
Water Science and Technology 77 (2018)11. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 2589 - 2597.
Anaerobic methane oxidation - Anaerobic wastewater treatment - Denitrification - Methylomirabilis oxyfera - Oxygen

Chemical energy can be recovered from municipal wastewater as biogas through anaerobic treatment. However, effluent from direct anaerobic wastewater treatment at low temperatures still contains ammonium and substantial amounts of dissolved CH4. After nitritation, CH4 can be used as electron donor for denitrification by the anaerobic bacterium Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera. The effect of 0.7% (0.35 mg dissolved O2/L), 1.1% (0.49 mg dissolved O2/L), and 2.0% (1.0 mg dissolved O2/L), on denitrifying activity was tested. Results demonstrated that at 0.7% O2, denitrifying methanotrophic activity slightly increased and returned to its original level after O2 had been removed. At 1.1% O2, CH4 consumption rate increased 118%, nitrite consumption rate increased 58%. After removal of O2, CH4 consumption rate fully recovered, and nitrite consumption rate returned to 88%. These indicate that traces of O2 that bacteria are likely to be exposed to in wastewater treatment are not expected to negatively affect the denitrifying methanotrophic process. The presence of 2.0% O2 inhibited denitrifying activity. Nitrite consumption rate decreased 60% and did not recover after removal of O2. No clear effect on CH4 consumption was observed.

EPS glycoconjugate profiles shift as adaptive response in anaerobic microbial granulation at high salinity
Gagliano, Maria C. ; Neu, Thomas R. ; Kuhlicke, Ute ; Sudmalis, Dainis ; Temmink, Hardy ; Plugge, Caroline M. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Microbiology 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-302X
Anaerobic digestion - Biofilm - EPS - Granular sludge - High salinity - Lectin staining - Methanosaeta

Anaerobic granulation at elevated salinities has been discussed in several analytical and engineering based studies. They report either enhanced or decreased efficiencies in relation to different Na+ levels. To evaluate this discrepancy, we focused on the microbial and structural dynamics of granules formed in two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors treating synthetic wastewater at low (5 g/L Na+) and high (20 g/L Na+) salinity conditions. Granules were successfully formed in both conditions, but at high salinity, the start-up inoculum quickly formed larger granules having a thicker gel layer in comparison to granules developed at low salinity. Granules retained high concentrations of sodium without any negative effect on biomass activity and structure. 16S rRNA gene analysis and Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) identified the acetotrophic Methanosaeta harundinacea as the dominant microorganism at both salinities. Fluorescence lectin bar coding (FLBC) screening highlighted a significant shift in the glycoconjugate pattern between granules grown at 5 and 20 g/L of Na+, and the presence of different extracellular domains. The excretion of a Mannose-rich cloud-like glycoconjugate matrix, which seems to form a protective layer for some methanogenic cells clusters, was found to be the main distinctive feature of the microbial community grown at high salinity conditions.

Natural flocculants from fresh and saline wastewater : Comparative properties and flocculation performances
Ajao, Victor ; Bruning, Harry ; Rijnaarts, Huub ; Temmink, Hardy - \ 2018
Chemical Engineering Journal 349 (2018). - ISSN 1385-8947 - p. 622 - 632.
Bioflocculant - Extracellular polymeric substances - Industrial wastewater - Mixed culture - Natural polyelectrolyte - Resource recovery

Natural flocculants, due to their eco-friendliness, have gained increasing attention for (waste) water treatment and are promising alternatives to oil-based synthetic flocculants. We systematically investigated simultaneous industrial wastewater treatment with the production of microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) as natural flocculants. EPS were produced in two membrane bioreactors, respectively treating fresh and saline synthetic wastewater from biodiesel and (bio)ethanol industries. From each reactor, soluble and bound EPS fractions were extracted, purified and characterised for their functionalities, molecular weights and charge densities using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), size exclusion chromatography and colloid titration, respectively. High removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was achieved in both reactors (93–95%), with 5.8–7.6% of the inlet COD recovered as EPS. FTIR spectroscopy reveals these EPS as a mixture of proteins and polysaccharides, possessing carboxyl, hydroxyl and amine groups. These functional groups, which provided a net anionic charge density (1.5–2.9 meq/g at neutral pH), coupled with EPS mixed molecular weight (MW) distribution: high (>1000 kDa), medium (1000–100 kDa) and low (<100 kDa) MW fractions, make them promising flocculants. Extracted EPS showed good flocculation of non-saline kaolin suspension (74–89% turbidity reduction) and excellent flocculation of saline kaolin suspension (88–97%), performances comparable to anionic polyacrylamide. The results show the possibility for wastewater treatment plants to combine wastewater treatment with the production of valuable flocculants.

Glocal assessment of integrated wastewater treatment and recovery concepts using partial nitritation/Anammox and microalgae for environmental impacts
Khiewwijit, Rungnapha ; Rijnaarts, Huub ; Temmink, Hardy ; Keesman, Karel J. - \ 2018
Science of the Total Environment 628-629 (2018). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 74 - 84.
Effluent quality - Energy recovery - Microalgae reactor - Nutrient recovery - Wastewater management - Wastewater treatment
This study explored the feasibility and estimated the environmental impacts of two novel wastewater treatment configurations. Both include combined bioflocculation and anaerobic digestion but apply different nutrient removal technologies, i.e. partial nitritation/Anammox or microalgae treatment. The feasibility of such configurations was investigated for 16 locations worldwide with respect to environmental impacts, such as net energy yield, nutrient recovery and effluent quality, CO2 emission, and area requirements. The results quantitatively support the applicability of partial nitritation/Anammox in tropical regions and some locations in temperate regions, whereas microalgae treatment is only applicable the whole year round in tropical regions that are close to the equator line. Microalgae treatment has an advantage over the configuration with partial nitritation/Anammox with respect to aeration energy and nutrient recovery, but not with area requirements. Differential sensitivity analysis points out the dominant influence of microalgal biomass yield and wastewater nutrient concentrations on area requirements and effluent quality. This study provides initial selection criteria for worldwide feasibility and corresponding environmental impacts of these novel municipal wastewater treatment plant configurations.
Anaerobic treatment of raw domestic wastewater in a UASB-digester at 10 °C and microbial community dynamics
Zhang, Lei ; Vrieze, Jo De; Hendrickx, Tim L.G. ; Wei, Wei ; Temmink, Hardy ; Rijnaarts, Huub ; Zeeman, Grietje - \ 2018
Chemical Engineering Journal 334 (2018). - ISSN 1385-8947 - p. 2088 - 2097.
Domestic wastewater treatment - Low temperature - Microbial community - Specific methanogenic activity - UASB-digester

Direct anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater is becoming attractive as it can change a wastewater treatment plant from energy consuming to energy producing. A pilot scale UASB-digester was studied to treat domestic wastewater at temperatures of 10–20 °C and an HRT of 6 h. The results show a stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 60 ± 4.6% during the operation at 12.5–20 °C. COD removal efficiency decreased to 51.5 ± 5.5% at 10 °C as a result of insufficient methanogenic capacity caused by low temperature and increased influent COD load (from 2.0 g/(L·d) to 3.0 g/(L·d)). Suspended COD removal was 76.0 ± 9.1% at 10–20 °C. Soluble COD removal fluctuated due to variation of the influent COD concentration, but the effluent COD concentration remained 90 ± 23 mg/L at temperatures between 12.5 and 20 °C. The methane production was 39.7 ± 4.4% of the influent COD, which was 80% of influent biological methane potential. The specific methanogenic activity of the UASB sludge and the digester sludge was 0.26 ± 0.03 and 0.29 ± 0.03 g CH4 COD/(g VSS d), respectively. The methanogenic community analysis revealed an overall dominance of the acetoclastic Methanosaetaceae and the hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales during the operation between 10–20 °C. The results of the UASB-digester treating domestic wastewater at 10–20 °C as reported in this paper provide support for application of anaerobic domestic wastewater treatment in moderate climate zones.

Fast anaerobic sludge granulation at elevated salinity
Sudmalis, D. ; Gagliano, M.C. ; Pei, R. ; Grolle, K. ; Plugge, C.M. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. ; Zeeman, G. ; Temmink, H. - \ 2018
Water Research 128 (2018). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 293 - 303.
Anaerobic sludge granulation - High salinity - Methanosaeta - UASB

It is commonly accepted that high salt concentrations negatively affect microbial activity in biological wastewater treatment reactors such as upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. Microbial aggregation in such reactors is equally important. It is well documented that anaerobic granules, when exposed to high salinity become weak and disintegrate, causing wash-out, operational problems and decreasing process performance. In this research, the possibility of microbial granule formation from dispersed biomass was investigated at salinity levels of 5 and 20 g Na+/L. High removal efficiencies of soluble influent organics were achieved at both salinity levels and this was accompanied by fast and robust formation of microbial granules. The process was found to be stable for the entire operational period of 217 days. As far as we know this is the first time it has been demonstrated that stable granule formation is possible at a salinity level as high as 20 g Na+/L. Methanosaeta was identified as the dominant methanogen at both salinity levels. Streptococcus spp. and bacteria belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae were identified as the dominant microbial population at 5 and 20 and g Na+/L, respectively.

Biofilm formation and granule properties in anaerobic digestion at high salinity
Gagliano, M.C. ; Ismail, S.B. ; Stams, A.J.M. ; Plugge, C.M. ; Temmink, H. ; Lier, J.B. Van - \ 2017
Water Research 121 (2017). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 61 - 71.
Anaerobic digestion - Anaerobic granules - Biofilm - High salinity - Methanosaeta - UASB
For the anaerobic biological treatment of saline wastewater, Anaerobic Digestion (AD) is currently a possibility, even though elevated salt concentrations can be a major obstacle. Anaerobic consortia and especially methanogenic archaea are very sensitive to fluctuations in salinity. When working with Upflow Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB) technology, in which the microorganisms are aggregated and retained in the system as a granular biofilm, high sodium concentration negatively affects aggregation and consequently process performances. In this research, we analysed the structure of the biofilm and granules formed during the anaerobic treatment of high salinity (at 10 and 20 g/L of sodium) synthetic wastewater at lab scale. The acclimated inoculum was able to accomplish high rates of organics removal at all the salinity levels tested. 16S rRNA gene clonal analysis and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analyses identified the acetoclastic Methanosaeta harundinacea as the key player involved acetate degradation and microbial attachment/granulation. When additional calcium (1 g/L) was added to overcome the negative effect of sodium on microbial aggregation, during the biofilm formation process microbial attachment and acetate degradation decreased. The same result was observed on granules formation: while calcium had a positive effect on granules strength when added to UASB reactors, Methanosaeta filaments were not present and the degradation of the partially acidified substrate was negatively influenced. This research demonstrated the possibility to get granulation at high salinity, bringing to the forefront the importance of a selection towards Methanosaeta cells growing in filamentous form to obtain strong and healthy granules.
Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) as Alternative to a Conventional Activated Sludge System Followed by Ultrafiltration (CAS-UF) for the Treatment of Fischer-Tropsch Reaction Water from Gas-to-Liquids Industries
Laurinonyte, Judita ; Meulepas, Roel J.W. ; Brink, Paula van den; Temmink, Hardy - \ 2017
Water Air and Soil Pollution 228 (2017). - ISSN 0049-6979
Conventional activated sludge - Fischer-Tropsch reaction water - Membrane bioreactor - Ultrafiltration

The potential of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system to treat Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction water from gas-to-liquids (GTL) industries was investigated and compared with the current treatment system: a conventional activated sludge system followed by an ultrafiltration (CAS-UF) unit. The MBR and the CAS-UF systems were inoculated with municipal activated sludge and operated in parallel for 645 days with four interruptions using synthetic FT reaction water. Both treatment systems achieved a removal efficiency of 98 ± 0.1% within 60 days after inoculation, the COD influent concentration was 1014 ± 15 mg L−1. This suggests that MBRs form a suitable alternative to CAS-UF systems for the treatment of FT reaction water from the GTL industries. Moreover, the total fouling rates (Ft) of the membranes used from day 349 till the end were assessed. The average Ft was 7.3 ± 1.0 1010 m−1 day−1 for CAS-UF membranes and 2.8 ± 00.7 1010 m−1 day−1 for MBR-MT membranes. This indicates that MBR systems for the treatment of FT reaction water from the gas-to-liquids industries are less prone to fouling than CAS-UF systems.

The carbon to nitrogen ratio in isoenergetic wheat based diets controls the growth rate of the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus
Laarhoven, B. ; Elissen, H.J.H. ; Buisman, C.J.N. ; Temmink, H. - \ 2016
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 2 (2016)4. - ISSN 2352-4588 - p. 225 - 231.
The aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv) contains high levels of proteins and can provide an excellent fish food. Large-scale production of Lv on low value organic substrates, such as by-products produced during wheat processing, therefore can be a promising and sustainable concept for the aquaculture industry. Growth and reproduction of Lv on different combinations of wheat based derivatives was studied at fixed isoenergetic levels (expressed by the chemical oxygen demand of the food), but at different carbon to nitrogen (C:N) mass ratios under controlled conditions in specifically designed test-beaker tests. Growth and reproduction rates were compared to those on Tetramin®, a substrate known to give excellent growth of Lv. Although Lv did exhibit a growth response on single as well as on mixed wheat fractions, growth was mainly controlled by the C:N ratio of the diets. Lower C:N ratios of typically 6-7 gave a much better performance than high C:N ratios of approximately 20. It was discussed this is probably caused by Lv relying on the presence of proteins for their carbon and energy source. Although growth and reproduction rates were not as high as on the control diet, the results are promising for the development of a worm biomass production system operating on by-products from the wheat processing industry
Vivianite as an important iron phosphate precipitate in sewage treatment plants
Wilfert, P. ; Mandalidis, A. ; Dugulan, A.I. ; Goubitz, K. ; Korving, L. ; Temmink, H. ; Witkamp, G.J. ; Loosdrecht, M.C.M. Van - \ 2016
Water Research 104 (2016). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 449 - 460.
Iron - Mössbauer spectroscopy - Phosphorus - Sewage - Sewage sludge - Vivianite

Iron is an important element for modern sewage treatment, inter alia to remove phosphorus from sewage. However, phosphorus recovery from iron phosphorus containing sewage sludge, without incineration, is not yet economical. We believe, increasing the knowledge about iron-phosphorus speciation in sewage sludge can help to identify new routes for phosphorus recovery. Surplus and digested sludge of two sewage treatment plants was investigated. The plants relied either solely on iron based phosphorus removal or on biological phosphorus removal supported by iron dosing. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that vivianite and pyrite were the dominating iron compounds in the surplus and anaerobically digested sludge solids in both plants. Mössbauer spectroscopy and XRD suggested that vivianite bound phosphorus made up between 10 and 30% (in the plant relying mainly on biological removal) and between 40 and 50% of total phosphorus (in the plant that relies on iron based phosphorus removal). Furthermore, Mössbauer spectroscopy indicated that none of the samples contained a significant amount of Fe(III), even though aerated treatment stages existed and although besides Fe(II) also Fe(III) was dosed. We hypothesize that chemical/microbial Fe(III) reduction in the treatment lines is relatively quick and triggers vivianite formation. Once formed, vivianite may endure oxygenated treatment zones due to slow oxidation kinetics and due to oxygen diffusion limitations into sludge flocs. These results indicate that vivianite is the major iron phosphorus compound in sewage treatment plants with moderate iron dosing. We hypothesize that vivianite is dominating in most plants where iron is dosed for phosphorus removal which could offer new routes for phosphorus recovery.

Efficient sewage pre-concentration with combined coagulation microfiltration for organic matter recovery
Jin, Zhengyu ; Gong, Hui ; Temmink, Hardy ; Nie, Haifeng ; Wu, Jing ; Zuo, Jiane ; Wang, Kaijun - \ 2016
Chemical Engineering Journal 292 (2016). - ISSN 1385-8947 - p. 130 - 138.
Anaerobic biodegradability - Combined coagulation microfiltration (CCM) - Concentration efficiency - Energy recovery - Sewage pre-concentration

This study proposed an efficient way of direct sewage pre-concentration by a combined coagulation microfiltration (CCM) system and an optimal operational strategy of aeration. Compared to two typical technologies for sewage pre-concentration, i.e. direct sewage microfiltration (DSM) and continuous aerated sewage microfiltration (ASM), the CCM system under optimal aeration strategy showed higher concentration efficiency and slower permeability decline (i.e. better control of membrane fouling), and easier collection of retained organic matter (OM). A lab-scale CCM reactor was running continuously for 295 h, and a concentrate of about 16,000 mg COD/L was produced at an average net flux of 13.3 L/(m2 h) and an influent OM recovery of nearly 70%, which was higher than the concentrate produced by a high-loaded membrane bioreactor (MBR) with one day solids retention time. The use of chemical coagulant was found to have little impact on the following anaerobic digestion (AD) process, for anaerobic biodegradability of the concentrate is 56.5% (close to the typical value for blackwater). The integration of the CCM and AD processes could achieve a net energy production of 0.0098 kW h/m3 after deduction of 0.0919 kW h/m3 required for the operation of the CCM system, thus showing promise as an effective OM concentration method for energy recovery from sewage.

Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus
Laarhoven, Bob ; Elissen, H.J.H. ; Temmink, H. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2016
PLoS ONE 11 (2016)3. - ISSN 1932-6203
An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml), 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin). With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.
Energy and nutrient recovery for munipal wastewater treatment : how to design a feasible plant layout?
Khiewwijit, R. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. ; Keesman, K.J. - \ 2016
Municipal wastewater treatment - Wastewater management - Energy recovery - Nutrients recovery - Configuration analysis
Activated sludge systems are commonly used for robust and efficient treatment of municipal wastewater. However, these systems cannot achieve their maximum potential to recover valuable resources from wastewater. This study demonstrates a procedure to design a feasible novel configuration for maximizing energy and nutrient recovery. A simulation model was developed based on literature data and recent experimental research using steady-state energy and mass balances with conversions. The analysis showed that in the Netherlands, proposed configuration consists of four technologies: bioflocculation, cold partial nitritation/Anammox, P recovery, and anaerobic digestion. Results indicate the possibility to increase net energy yield up to 0.24 kWh/m3 of wastewater, while reducing carbon emissions by 35%. Moreover, sensitivity analysis points out the dominant influence of wastewater organic matter on energy production and consumption. This study provides a good starting point for the design of promising layouts that will improve sustainability of municipal wastewater management in the future.
Can aquatic worms enhance methane production from waste activated sludge?
Serrano, Antonio ; Hendrickx, Tim L.G. ; Elissen, Hellen ; Laarhoven, Bob ; Buisman, Cees J.N. ; Temmink, Hardy - \ 2016
Bioresource Technology 211 (2016). - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 51 - 57.
Anaerobic digestion - Aquatic worms - Lumbriculus variegatus - Waste sludge

Although literature suggests that aquatic worms can help to enhance the methane production from excess activated sludge, clear evidence for this is missing. Therefore, anaerobic digestion tests were performed at 20 and at 30 °C with sludge from a high-loaded membrane bioreactor, the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus, feces from these worms and with mixtures of these substrates. A significant synergistic effect of the worms or their feces on methane production from the high-loaded sludge or on its digestion rate was not observed. However, a positive effect on low-loaded activated sludge, which generally has a lower anaerobic biodegradability, cannot be excluded. The results furthermore showed that the high-loaded sludge provides an excellent feed for L. variegatus, which is promising for concepts where worm biomass is considered a resource for technical grade products such as coatings and glues.

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