- P. Kastelein (1)
- H.J. Knegt de (1)
- E. Kohi (1)
- M. Kos (2)
- F. Langevelde van (1)
- L.S. Overbeek van (1)
- B. Page (1)
- M. Peel (1)
- C. Plas (1)
- Y. Pretorius (2)
- H.H.T. Prins (1)
- R. Slotow (1)
- W. Takken (1)
- C. Waal van der (1)
- S.E. Wieren van (1)
Rodent species as natural reservoirs of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in different habitats of Ixodes ricinus in The Netherlands
Gassner, F. ; Takken, W. ; Plas, C. ; Kastelein, P. ; Hoetmer, A.J. ; Holdinga, M. ; Overbeek, L.S. van - \ 2013
Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 4 (2013)5. - ISSN 1877-959X - p. 452 - 458.
lyme borreliosis - ticks - transmission - association - populations - infections - ehrlichia - ixodidae - forests - acari
Rodents are natural reservoirs for human pathogenic spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi complex [B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.)], and the pathogens are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks to humans in The Netherlands. B. burgdorferi s.l. infection prevalence in questing ticks, rodents, and ticks feeding on these rodents, all sampled within the same short time span of five days in three different areas in The Netherlands, were compared in order to establish the relationship between ticks, reservoir hosts, and B. burgdorferi s.l. Questing nymphs were found in all 3 areas and numbers differed per area and even per site within areas. Infection prevalence in questing nymphs ranged between 0 and 20%. Apodemus sylvaticus and Myodes glareolus were the dominant rodents captured, and their numbers differed per area. Infection prevalence, determined by ear biopsies, ranged between 0 and 33.3% for both rodent species. Larvae were most frequently found feeding on these rodents, and their Borrelia infection prevalence ranged between 0 and 6.3% (A. sylvaticus) and between 0 and 29.4% (M. glareolus). The burden of nymphs feeding on rodents was low and varied per area with only 2 of 42 nymphs infected. Comparisons made on the basis of infection prevalence indicated that there was no clear relationship between rodents and questing nymphs when sampled within the same short time span. However, a possible relationship was present when questing ticks were sampled over longer periods in time (months) within or near the same areas (range of infection prevalence between 3.7 and 39.4). Confounding factors thus play a role in the interaction between rodents, ticks, and B. burgdorferi s.l., and it is very likely that other reservoir host species are responsible for the observed fluctuations. It is concluded that the local variations in rodent-Borre/ia-tick interactions only partially explain the Lyme borreliosis risk in the sites studied and that other ecological determinants, notably vertebrate hosts and vegetation structure, should be incorporated in future studies of Lyme borreliosis risk.
Seasonal diet changes in elephant and impala in mopane woodland
Kos, M. ; Hoetmer, A.J. ; Pretorius, Y. ; Boer, W.F. de; Knegt, H.J. de; Grant, C.C. ; Kohi, E. ; Page, B. ; Peel, M. ; Slotow, R. ; Waal, C. van der; Wieren, S.E. van; Prins, H.H.T. ; Langevelde, F. van - \ 2012
European Journal of Wildlife Research 58 (2012)1. - ISSN 1612-4642 - p. 279 - 287.
colophospermum-mopane - aepyceros-melampus - foraging behavior - national-park - herbivores - digestion - ecology - goats - trees - serengeti
Elephant and impala as intermediate feeders, having a mixed diet of grass and browse, respond to seasonal fluctuations of forage quality by changing their diet composition. We tested the hypotheses that (1) the decrease in forage quality is accompanied by a change in diet from more monocots in the wet season to more dicots in the dry season and that that change is more pronounced and faster in impala than in elephant; (2) mopane (Colophospermum mopane), the most abundant dicot species, is the most important species in the elephant diet in mopane woodland, whereas impala feed relatively less on mopane due to the high condensed tannin concentration; and (3) impala on nutrient-rich soils have a diet consisting of more grass and change later to diet of more browse than impala on nutrient-poor soils. The phosphorus content and in vitro digestibility of monocots decreased and the NDF content increased significantly towards the end of the wet season, whereas in dicots no significant trend could be detected. We argue that this decreasing monocot quality caused elephant and impala to consume more dicots in the dry season. Elephant changed their diet gradually over a 16-week period from 70% to 25% monocots, whereas impala changed diets rapidly (2-4 weeks) from 95% to 70% monocots. For both elephants and impala, there was a positive correlation between percentage of monocots and dicots in the diet and the in vitro digestibility of these forage items. Mopane was the most important dicot species in the elephant diet and its contribution to the diet increased significantly in the dry season, whereas impala selected other dicot species. On nutrient-rich gabbroic soils, impala ate significantly more monocots than impala from nutrient-poor granitic soils, which was related to the higher in vitro digestibility of the monocots on gabbroic soil. Digestibility of food items appears to be an important determinant of diet change from the wet to the dry season in impala and elephants.
Seasonal diet switch in elephant and impala in a Mopane woodland
Kos, M. ; Hoetmer, A.J. ; Pretorius, Y. ; Boer, W.F. de - \ 2007
In: 5th Annual Science Network Meeting. South African National Parks, Skukuza - p. 44 - 44.