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Protein-Repellent Silicon Nitride Surfaces: UV-Induced Formation of Oligoethylene Oxide Monolayers
Rosso, M. ; Nguyen, A.T. ; Jong, E. de; Baggerman, J. ; Paulusse, J.M.J. ; Giesbers, M. ; Fokkink, R.G. ; Norde, W. ; Schroën, C.G.P.H. ; Rijn, C.J.M. van; Zuilhof, H. - \ 2011
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 3 (2011)3. - ISSN 1944-8244 - p. 697 - 704.
self-assembled monolayers - transfer radical polymerization - low-temperature plasma - bovine serum-albumin - c linked monolayers - poly(ethylene glycol) - organic monolayers - molecular simulation - ultrafiltration membranes - oligo(ethylene glycol)
The grafting of polymers and oligomers of ethylene oxide onto surfaces is widely used to prevent nonspecific adsorption of biological material on sensors and membrane surfaces. In this report, we show for the first time the robust covalent attachment of short oligoethylene oxide-terminated alkenes (CH3O(CH2CH2O)3(CH2)11-(CH-CH2) [EO3] and CH3O(CH2CH2O)6(CH2)11-(CH-CH2) [EO6]) from the reaction of alkenes onto silicon-rich silicon nitride surfaces at room temperature using UV light. Reflectometry is used to monitor in situ the nonspecific adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen (FIB) onto oligoethylene oxide coated silicon-rich silicon nitride surfaces (EOn-SixN4, x > 3) in comparison with plasma-oxidized silicon-rich silicon nitride surfaces (SiOy-SixN4) and hexadecane-coated SixN4 surfaces (C16-SixN4). A significant reduction in protein adsorption on EOn-SixN4 surfaces was achieved, adsorption onto EO3-SixN4 and EO6-SixN4 were 0.22 mg m-2 and 0.08 mg m-2, respectively. The performance of the obtained EO3 and EO6 layers is comparable to those of similar, highly protein-repellent monolayers formed on gold and silver surfaces. EO6-SixN4 surfaces prevented significantly the adsorption of BSA (0.08 mg m-2). Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray reflectivity and static water contact angle measurements were employed to characterize the modified surfaces. In addition, the stability of EO6-SixN4 surfaces in phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS) and alkaline condition (pH 10) was studied. Prolonged exposure of the surfaces to PBS solution for 1 week or alkaline condition for 2 h resulted in only minor degradation of the ethylene oxide moieties and no oxidation of the SixN4 substrates was observed. Highly stable antifouling coatings on SixN4 surfaces significantly broaden the application potential of silicon nitride-coated microdevices, and in particular of microfabricated filtration membranes
|Lignin depolymerization under supercritical process conditions
Gosselink, R.J.A. ; Jong, E. de; Scott, E.L. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2008
Polymerization of different lignins by laccase
Mattinen, M.L. ; Suortti, T. ; Gosselink, R.J.A. ; Argyropoulos, D.S. ; Evtuguin, D. ; Suurnäkki, A. ; Jong, E. de; Tamminen, T. - \ 2008
BioResources 3 (2008)2. - ISSN 1930-2126 - p. 549 - 565.
In this study the oxidative polymerization of different lignins, i.e. Flax Soda lignin, Spruce EMAL, and Eucalyptus Dioxane lignin by Trametes hirsuta laccase was compared. Initially the structures of the different lignins were compared by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The reactivity of laccase with the different types of lignins in the absence of mediators was examined and verified by oxygen consumption measurements. The molecular weight distributions of treated and untreated lignins were determined by two different size exclusion chromatography methods. Furthermore, the potential of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight-mass spectroscopy for determination of the absolute molecular weights of the different lignins was evaluated. The data showed that all the technical lignins could be activated and polymerized by laccase to different degrees. The efficiency as indicated by measurements of the degree of polymerization was found to increase in the order of Spruce EMAL <Eucalyptus Dioxane lignin <Flax Soda lignin. Overall, this data supplies foundations for using enzymes more efficiently in the enzymatic upgrading of lignin.
Pilot-scale conversion of lime-treated wheat straw into bioethanol: quality assessment of bioethanol and valorization of side streams by anaerobic digestion and combustion
Maas, R.H.W. ; Bakker, R.R.C. ; Boersma, A.R. ; Bisschops, I. ; Pels, J.R. ; Jong, E. de; Weusthuis, R.A. ; Reith, H. - \ 2008
Biotechnology for Biofuels 1 (2008). - ISSN 1754-6834
ethanol-production - lignocellulosic materials - saccharomyces-cerevisiae - enzymatic-hydrolysis - biomass - pretreatment - fermentation - acid - saccharification - softwood
The limited availability of fossil fuel sources, worldwide rising energy demands and anticipated climate changes attributed to an increase of greenhouse gasses are important driving forces for finding alternative energy sources. One approach to meeting the increasing energy demands and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is by large-scale substitution of petrochemically derived transport fuels by the use of carbon dioxide-neutral biofuels, such as ethanol derived from lignocellulosic material. Results This paper describes an integrated pilot-scale process where lime-treated wheat straw with a high dry-matter content (around 35% by weight) is converted to ethanol via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by commercial hydrolytic enzymes and bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). After 53 hours of incubation, an ethanol concentration of 21.4 g/liter was detected, corresponding to a 48% glucan-to-ethanol conversion of the theoretical maximum. The xylan fraction remained mostly in the soluble oligomeric form (52%) in the fermentation broth, probably due to the inability of this yeast to convert pentoses. A preliminary assessment of the distilled ethanol quality showed that it meets transportation ethanol fuel specifications. The distillation residue, which contained non-hydrolysable and non-fermentable (in)organic compounds, was divided into a liquid and solid fraction. The liquid fraction served as substrate for the production of biogas (methane), whereas the solid fraction functioned as fuel for thermal conversion (combustion), yielding thermal energy, which can be used for heat and power generation. Conclusion Based on the achieved experimental values, 16.7 kg of pretreated wheat straw could be converted to 1.7 kg of ethanol, 1.1 kg of methane, 4.1 kg of carbon dioxide, around 3.4 kg of compost and 6.6 kg of lignin-rich residue. The higher heating value of the lignin-rich residue was 13.4 MJ thermal energy per kilogram (dry basis).
Lactic acid production from lime-treated wheat straw by Bacillus coagulans: neutralization of acid by fed-batch addition of alkaline substrate
Maas, R.H.W. ; Bakker, R.R. ; Jansen, M.L.A. ; Visser, D. ; Jong, E. de; Eggink, G. ; Weusthuis, R.A. - \ 2008
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 78 (2008)5. - ISSN 0175-7598 - p. 751 - 758.
pretreatment - biomass - fermentation - growth
Conventional processes for lignocellulose-to-organic acid conversion requires pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. In this study, lime-treated wheat straw was hydrolyzed and fermented simultaneously to lactic acid by an enzyme preparation and Bacillus coagulans DSM 2314. Decrease in pH because of lactic acid formation was partially adjusted by automatic addition of the alkaline substrate. After 55 h of incubation, the polymeric glucan, xylan, and arabinan present in the lime-treated straw were hydrolyzed for 55%, 75%, and 80%, respectively. Lactic acid (40.7 g/l) indicated a fermentation efficiency of 81% and a chiral l(+)-lactic acid purity of 97.2%. In total, 711 g lactic acid was produced out of 2,706 g lime-treated straw, representing 43% of the overall theoretical maximum yield. Approximately half of the lactic acid produced was neutralized by fed-batch feeding of lime-treated straw, whereas the remaining half was neutralized during the batch phase with a Ca(OH)2 suspension. Of the lime added during the pretreatment of straw, 61% was used for the neutralization of lactic acid. This is the first demonstration of a process having a combined alkaline pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and pH control in fermentation resulting in a significant saving of lime consumption and avoiding the necessity to recycle lime.
Molar mass determination of lignins by size-exclusion chromatography: towards standardisation of the method
Baumberger, S. ; Abaecherli, A. ; Fasching, M. ; Gellerstedt, G. ; Gosselink, R.J.A. ; Hortling, B. ; Li, J. ; Saake, B. ; Jong, E. de - \ 2007
Holzforschung 61 (2007)4. - ISSN 0018-3830 - p. 459 - 468.
molecular-weight distributions - kraft lignin - model compounds - wood - fractionation - spectrometry - derivatives - extraction - monolayers - behavior
The reactivity and physicochemical properties of lignins are partly governed by their molar mass distribution. The development of reliable standard methods for determination of the molar mass distribution is not only relevant for designing technical lignins for specific applications, but also for monitoring and elucidating delignification and pulping processes. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) offers many advantages, such as wide availability, short analysis time, low sample demand, and determination of molar mass distribution over a wide range. A collaborative study has been undertaken within the ¿Eurolignin¿ European thematic network to standardise SEC analysis of technical lignins. The high-molar-mass fraction of polydisperse lignins was shown to be the main source of intra- and interlaboratory variations, depending on the gel type, elution solvent, detection mode, and calculation strategy. The reliability of two widespread systems have been tested: one based on alkali and a hydrophilic gel (e.g., TSK Toyopearl gel) and the other based on THF as solvent and polystyrene-based gels (e.g., Styragel). A set of practical recommendations has been deduced.
Biorefinery.nl 2006 : the results of the 1st year of the Dutch Network on Biorefinery, BioRef 0606
Zwart, R.W.R. ; Ree, R. van; Annevelink, E. ; Jong, E. de - \ 2006
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 31
biobased economy - bioraffinage - nederland - kennisoverdracht - beleid - biorefinery - netherlands - knowledge transfer - policy
The Dutch Network on Biorefinery (Biorefinery.nl) is a joint initiative of the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) and Wageningen University and Research Centre (WUR). It is meant to inform industry, research institutes, universities, NGOs, governments and the general public about research activities, new developments and projects. With the feedback of these groups Biorefinery.nl also concentrates on establishing a global biorefinery vision and the formulation of a Technological Roadmap (including a Strategic Research Agenda) for research, development, demonstration and deployment of biorefinery processes. In this report the results of 2006, the 1st year of the Network, are reported. During this year the founders of the network, ECN and WUR, obtained financial support from SenterNovem. The Network will be continued in 2007, and will then be used for the set-up of a National Technology Roadmap Biorefinery (TRB) within an European global framework.
Co-production of cellulosic bio-ethanol, power and heat : techno-economic feasibility and follow-up R&D
Reith, J.H. ; Ree, R. van; Laat, W.T.A.M. de; Niessen, J.J. ; Jong, E. de; Elbersen, H.W. ; Weusthuis, R.A. ; Dijken, J.P. van; Raamsdonk, L. - \ 2006
Notulen 2e workshop Nederlands kennisnetwerk bioraffinage : "Naar een technology roadmap bioraffinage" : 1e aanzet tot gezamelijke uitwerking van een breed gedragen ontwikkelings- en implementatieplan voor technologiëen voor de optimale co-productie van chemicaliën, brandstoffen, kracht en warmte uit biomassa
Ree, R. van; Annevelink, E. ; Reith, H. ; Jong, E. de - \ 2006
Wageningen : Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group (BioRef 0604) - 26 p.
Compositional characterisation of wood and pulps : summary WG1
Jong, E. de - \ 2006
Bioethanol from lignocellulose
Bakker, R.R. ; Jong, E. de; Weusthuis, R.A. - \ 2006
biobrandstoffen - bioethanol - biomassa - biobased economy - biofuels - biomass
Poster met informatie over de mogelijkheden om ethanol te produceren uit biomassa.
Analysis of isolated lignin samples using organic and alkaline SEC and MALDITOF-MS
Gosselink, R.J.A. ; Teunissen, W. ; Jong, E. de - \ 2006
First workshop on the possibilities of biorefinery concepts for the industry : held at hotel "De Wageningse Berg", Wageningen, the Netherlands (16 June 2006) : official minutes
Annevelink, E. ; Jong, E. de; Ree, R. van; Zwart, R.W.R. - \ 2006
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 20 p.
On June the 16th the first ¿workshop on the possibilities of biorefinery concepts for the industry¿ was held, bringing together different Dutch stakeholders, and addressing common as well as conflicting technical and market issues with regard to biorefinery opportunities. The first-of-akind workshop provided a forum for a technical review of state-of-the-art research leading to the development of biorefinery technologies. Biorefining refers to fractionating biomass into various separated products that possibly undergo further biological, (bio)chemical, physical and/or thermal chemical processing and separation. By means of co-producing chemicals (e.g. fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, polymers) the production costs of secondary energy carriers (e.g. transport fuels, heat, power) potentially could become more profitable, especially when biorefining is integrated into the existing chemical, material and power industries. The workshop revealed that although the knowledge to overcome existing technological barriers in the development of biorefinery concepts is available in the Netherlands, real initiatives as well as a commonly accepted Biorefining Vision ¿ and related Technology Roadmap (Strategic Research Agenda) ¿ are lacking. Defining an RD&D Technology Roadmap based on a Commonly Accepted Vision could help to stimulate and activate further developments and implementation, as long as it does not focus too much on defining new definitions and concepts. It should raise consciousness on the importance of developing biorefineries and how to overcome technical, ecologic and economic barriers, not on defining innumerable alternative concepts to the existing ones. This Roadmap will certainly require a considerable effort of all parties involved, i.e. research institutes and industry as well as government and social organisations. The first step towards defining a Roadmap will be to become aware of each others existing problems (technical, ecologic as well as economic), and the possible solutions that can be provided by each one. A close cooperation of different participants with a broad variety of disciplines within the recently formed Dutch Network on Biorefinery ¿ Biorefinery.nl ¿ will enable research, development, demonstration and implementation of innovative biorefinery concepts. The founders of the Biorefinery.nl initiative and organisers of the first workshop on the possibilities of biorefinery concepts for the industry ¿ Wageningen University and Research centre (WUR) and the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) ¿ therefore invite parties to participate in the Dutch Network on Biorefinery, in order to share `up-to-date¿ information about biorefinery activities, about promising combinations of products and fuels, and about expected production costs. This will enable them to establish their own company and marketing strategy as well as co-formulate a commonly accepted Vision on and RD&D Roadmap for Biorefining.
Biorefineries for the chemical industry : a Dutch point of view
Jong, E. de; Ree, R. van; Tuil, R.F. van; Elbersen, H.W. - \ 2006
In: Biorefineries : industrial processes and products : Status Quo and Future Directions, Volume 1 / Kamm, B., Gruber, P.R., Kamm, M., Weinhem [etc.] : Wiley-VCH - ISBN 3527310274 - p. 85 - 111.
|Emerging markets for lignin and lignin derivatives
Jong, E. de; Dam, J.E.G. van; Gosselink, R.J.A. ; Abächerli, A. - \ 2005
Hydrolysis and fermentation of lime-pretreated biomass
Bakker, R.R. ; Maas, R.H.W. ; Kabel, M.A. ; Schols, H.A. ; Weusthuis, R.A. ; Jong, E. de - \ 2005
kalk - tarwestro - voorbehandeling - hydrolyse - fermentatie - ethanolproductie - saccharomyces cerevisiae - biobased economy - bioethanol - lime - wheat straw - pretreatment - hydrolysis - fermentation - ethanol production
Poster met onderzoeksinformatie over het effect van voorbehandeling met kalk op de hydrolyse en fermentatie van biomassa voor alcoholproductie.
|Biorefineries for the chemical industry
Jong, E. de; Ree, R. van; Tuil, R.F. van; Elbersen, H.W. - \ 2005
In: Proceedings of the 2005 annual meeting of the association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops: International Conference on Industrial Crops and Rural Development, 17-21 September 2005, Murcia, Spain / Pascual-Villalobos, M.J., Nakayama, F.S., Bailey, C.A., Correal, E., Schloman, W.W., [s.l.] : AAIC - ISBN 8468933635 - p. 111 - 128.
Biotechnological application of enzymes for making paper pulp from green jute/kenaf
Snijder, M.H.B. ; Lips, S.J.J. ; Maas, R.H.W. ; Kamp, R.G.M. op den; Valk, H.C.P.M. van der; Jong, E. de - \ 2004
Wageningen : Agrotechnology & Food Innovations (Rapport 93)
papier - pulpbereiding - jute - kenaf - productieprocessen - biotechnologie - voorbehandeling - enzymen - biobased economy - paper - pulping - production processes - biotechnology - pretreatment - enzymes
The objectives of the tasks of Agrotechnology & Food Innovation (formerly ATO) in the project are: to determine at laboratory level the best conditions for producing high-yield pulps from whole jute for utilisation in wood containing papers; to test the potential of using recommended enzyme recipes in both extruder and refiner processes in terms of pulp quality, chemicals and energy consumption, brightness and production cost; to evaluate the potential of a micro-biological pre-treatment with selected strains of fungi; to establish process conditions for pilot confirmatory trials.
High-yield pulps from whole jute for making paper
Snijder, M.H.B. ; Lips, S.J.J. ; Maas, R.H.W. ; Kamp, R.G.M. op den; Valk, H.C.P.M. van der; Jong, E. de - \ 2004
In: 2nd Dissemination Workshop on Biotechnological application of enzymes for making paper pulp from green jute / Kenaf, Hyderabad, A.P., India, 18 - 19 November, 2004. - Saharanpur : Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute - p. 16 - 18.
Lignin, carbohydrates and extractives : analytical research
Jong, E. de - \ 2004